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I Hate All . . .

by
Jay M. Brown


Contents of Curriculum Unit 78.03.02:

To Guide Entry


Introduction

I Hate All . . . Prejudice and the Individual is designed to be incorporated into the Social Studies curriculum in the eighth grade or above.

Designed to maximize student involvement, I Hate All . . . can be used as an independent unit or as an introductory part of a full marking period’s unit on the Contribution of Immigrants and Minorities to America.

No time limitations are set for the I Hate All . . . component as each educator may desire to add or delete materials suitable for the grade level of his or her class.

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Content Objectives

We appear to be living in a Stone Age, according to Gordon Allport, when we examine human relationships. We have gained notable mastery over energy, matter, and inanimate nature generally, and are rapidly learning to control physical suffering and premature death, but with all our modern technological advances we still have been unable to overcome the prejudice of human beings towards other human beings.

The problem of the twentieth century, as W. E. DuBois has stated, is the problem of the color line—the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America, and in the islands of all the oceans.

Thus the achievement of good relations between different racial and ethnic groups continues to be a major problem of our times; the lack of good relations undermines our national unity. There exists, as Gunnar Myrdal has pointed out, a gulf between the American ideals of democracy and brotherhood on the one hand, and the reality of racial prejudice and segregation on the other. The essential dignity of the human personality, the equality of man, and the rights to freedom, justice, and equal opportunity emphasized in the American creed are cruelly contradicted by discrimination against individuals because of their race, religion, or nationality.

In every society prejudice has existed and has not been restricted to any one group, minority or majority. Although the major concentration of this unit will deal with racial and religious prejudice, students will be made aware that other types of prejudice are also common. An individual can be biased towards another person’s appearance, their sex, their behavior, or non-conforming beliefs.

Derived from the Latin noun praejudicium, the modern word “prejudice” has undergone many semantic changes. Originally prejudice meant pre-judgment, but it also implies misjudgment.

Since it is learned in childhood, prejudice cannot be overcome through a series of classroom lessons. As prejudice is instilled in an individual in childhood and reinforced by his environment, an educational experience can only hope to assist students in understanding how prejudicial attitudes develop and why they develop, and offer some insight into each person’s own prejudice.

From the earliest colonial settlement, in Virginia, to modern times, our nation has been comprised of individuals and groups with varied cultural backgrounds. These cultural differences have helped America grow and mature. Students should be made aware of these differences and should understand that an individual’s pride in his own group or own heritage is not, in the sociological sense, prejudice.

Prejudice may be either negative or positive, for it is a feeling, favorable or unfavorable, toward a person or thing, prior to, not based on, actual experience.

Prejudice undermines our national unity as well as that of other nations. Students will learn that we pay for our prejudices with human happiness, because intolerance leads to fear. Students will learn that, in the world, prejudice is a problem and that various levels of prejudice exist, such as:

1. Prejudice which is merely an opinion, not given outwardly hostile expression either in word or conduct towards members of a particular group, but which consists in the conscious effort to avoid contact with members of that group.
2. Prejudice which consists of an opinion expressed outwardly in relations with members of a disliked group, such as showing a cold attitude toward them. Here there is a mild expression of antipathy, dislike, or devaluation, but no discriminatory act or legal infraction occurs.
3. Prejudice which is a form of social discrimination, as for example, intentionally and manifestly avoiding any social contact with members of the disliked group, but does not go so far as to deny legal rights to the members of a disliked group.
4. Prejudice which expresses itself in discriminatory acts, denying legal rights to individuals belonging to a group discriminated against.
5. Prejudice which consists not only in discriminatory behavior, but goes further and gives rise to propaganda that promotes further discrimination. This propaganda may be confined to certain private circles or it may develop into public manifestations, such as speeches or written incitements to acts of discrimination.
6. Prejudice which expresses itself in acts of violence against the members of a group, acts committed either by an individual or by a group of individuals. These acts may also be committed or tolerated by public authorities.
An individual’s prejudice is a product of his own frustration and personality needs. His relationships with those around him may strongly influence his attitude and behavior towards members of other groups. Prejudice appears to be economically, socially, and politically advantageous to more privileged groups. It enhances and reinforces the position of the dominant majority. An individual’s prejudice may serve to build up a person’s self-esteem, alleviate guilt feelings, or provide an outlet for an individual’s aggression.

A person who possesses racial prejudice is one who judges individuals, groups, or another race not on the basis of experience, but in advance of any direct experience. He believes that other races are inferior to one’s own, that other races have inferior intelligence, that racial intermixture would develop offspring biologically weaker or disproportioned in bodily structure, and that certain races lack drive and ambition and do not have the same aspirations as others.

John Dewey has stated that the basis of race prejudice is instinctive dislike and dread of what is strange. Negative attitudes tend to be expressed, by an individual or group, in action. Few keep their antipathies entirely to themselves. The more intense the attitude, the more likely it results in hostile action. Participants in classes will begin to understand that human beings act out their prejudice in various ways—from very mild (antilocution) to the ultimate degree of violent expression (extermination).

The United States is the greatest crossroads of the world in history. People have come here from every race and nation and brought with them a unique cultural contribution to the character of America.

Without the hand skills of the early immigrants, American industry would not have developed as fast as it did. Our music and our buildings have developed from patterns from every quarter of the world. Our country would be poorer in every phase of its culture if different cultures had not come together here, sharing and learning the special contributions each had to offer.

Through class discussions an attempt will be made to convey the fact that race, religion, and nationality do not make one person superior or inferior to another, and we will try to show how fear and ignorance brings about prejudice.

To show that prejudices influence our different senses of sight, hearing, and speech, students will participate in a “Rumor Clinic.” The clinic will reveal how prejudices change and distort what we see and hear.

Because prejudices can be expressed orally and visually, students will be given a mass media assignment in an effort to help them understand, and be able to clarify, the value conflicts reflected in the many incidents of prejudice and discrimination shown on television and expressed on radio or written in the daily newspaper.

To demonstrate that race, religion, and nationality do not make one person superior or inferior to another, but that each person has something unique to contribute to society, students will be given a written assignment in which they assume the role of an individual from another group. The completion of this assignment should assist the student in developing empathy with others.

Many of our history textbooks are guilty of slights and slurs against minorities with half-truths, omissions, and supremacy myths. By examining various textbooks, students will develop the awareness that written words are not always true or unprejudicial.

During our lifetimes, in dealing with other individuals, we use oral expressions more than written words. Through a word association test students will begin to understand various stereotyped words, what stereotyping is, and how it affects one individual’s perception of, and behavior towards, another.

Students will also participate in oral, written, and dramatic exercises that will permit them to examine each other’s views and experiences on sex-role stereotyping.

Although this unit cannot fully overcome prejudicial attitudes of the participants, it is hoped that students will begin to realize why people are different, to grasp why they feel the way they do about others, to understand their and others’ uniqueness, and to learn to tolerate each other’s differences.

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Course Outline

Lesson Number

1.Prejudice—the word
a.defined by students
b.history of the word
2.Filmstrip—What is Prejudice?
3.Exercise in judging a person
4.Library work—selecting a book from bibliography for future class discussions
5.Filmstrip—We Are All Brothers
6.Levels of Prejudice—U.N. Commission Report
7.Filmstrip—Rumor Clinic
8.Faces Don’t Tell A Story—Part I
9.Prejudices—other than racial or religious
10.Stereotyping and Stereotyped terms
11.Tape—N Is For Name Calling
12.Alice and Jerry—sex-role stereotyping
13.Faces Don’t Tell A Story—Part II
14.Interracial, Intercultural, Values Questionnaire
15.Focus Pictures
16.Film—The Eye of the Storm
17.Test Your Textbooks For Prejudice exercise
18.Prejudice Discussion with regard to student’s readings
19.Review
20.Essay Test

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Sample Lesson

The Rumor Clinic

Objectives

The rumor clinic is designed to develop an understanding that each of us may be prejudiced and to realize that prejudices may take different forms. The lesson should make students aware of their own prejudices so that they can begin to recognize fact from fiction (i.e., the difference between what actually happened and what was reported to have happened).

Equipment and Materials Needed

Rumor Clinic film stripTape recorder (optional)
Film strip projectorProjection screen

Putting On The Rumor Clinic

Six student volunteers are selected to act as “reporters.” All the reporters are sent out of the room. The remaining members of the class are told that the group will now have an opportunity to see what happens to stories and rumors when they are told and retold.

The first reporter is brought back into the room. The tape recorder is started, or the class can take notes. One slide of the film strip is projected onto the screen. The reporter and the class view the scene for two minutes. The projector is then shut off.

Reporter #2 is called into the room. With both reporters facing the class, not the screen, the scene is shown again (this will be repeated with all reporters). Reporter #1 relates to #2 what he saw. Reporter #3 is called into room and #2 relates what he has been told to #3. The process is repeated until all the reporters have heard and related the story. The last reporter relates the story to the entire class.

After the presentation, the entire class views the film strip scene again. The tape is replayed or a student may be selected to point out the errors each of the reporters made when telling what they saw or heard.

If time allows, a different scene may be used with additional volunteers to act as reporters.

Summary and Evaluation

Students should have been made aware that people show their prejudices in varied forms—orally, visually, aurally.

Class discussion can help the members realize:

a. how great the changes and distortions in a report can become as the story is passed along from person to person;
b. how the changes take place, even when there is no desire on the part of the people involved to distort what they heard or saw;
c. why rumors can never be accepted as fact until they are checked, and why they must be checked carefully before they are made the basis for any action.
A teacher should point out that each of us approaches a situation with his own interests, his own experiences, and his own expectations of how people should—or do—behave. In talking about what we saw, or what we were told, this background of our own creeps into the story. The person retelling the story becomes part-author of a new version of the story rather than just a “reporter” who reports exactly what happened.

It is these changes in the story, arising out of the attitudes and prejudices of the person who tells or retells it, which we must always be on the lookout for in stories, reports, and rumors.

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Sample Lesson

Stereotyping and Stereotyped Terms

Objectives

Students will begin to understand various stereotyped words, what stereotyping is, and how it affects one person’s behavior towards another.

Equipment and Materials Needed

Chalk ChalkboardDitto Sheets of Words

Presenting the Lesson

Students are informed that they will be given a ditto sheet containing a list of words. Without signing their name to the paper, they will place next to each of the words the name of any one of the following ethnic groups that they feel is described by the word: Blacks, Puerto Ricans, Jewish, Catholic, Irish, Italian, Chinese, Japanese.

When the entire class has completed the sheets they will be collected and a master list will be compiled on the chalkboard, showing each of the words and what group or groups the students felt the word represented.

A discussion on stereotyping and what stereotyping does to an individual or group should follow.

Lesson should take approximately two periods.

The Word List

AggressiveJovial
AimlessKind
AlertLarge noses
AmbitiousLazy
ArgumentativeLoud
ArrogantLoyal to family ties
ArtisticMaterialistic
AthleticMusical
Attention-seekingNaive
BitterNonbeliever
BoastfulOppressed
BravePoor
BrilliantPractical
CasualPrejudiced
ConceitedQuarrelsome
CowardlyQuick-tempered
CriticalQuiet
CruelRadical
CynicalReserved
Dark complexionRich
Dark-skinnedRude
DeceitfulSecure
DemocraticSensitive
DullSly
EfficientSmall
EvasiveSophisticated
FaithfulSportsmanlike
FrivolousStraightforward
GenerousStrange
GregariousStubborn
Happy-go-luckyStupid
Hard-workingSuperstitious
HonestSuspicious
HumorousStingy
HumorlessTalkative
IgnorantTradition-loving
ImaginativeTreacherous
ImmoralUninformed
ImpulsiveVery religious
IndustriousWarlike
InsecureWitty
IntelligentYellow-skinned

Summary and Evaluation

Students should start to become aware that we cannot assign any one group individual characteristics, and that stereotyping is another way we express our personal prejudices.

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Sample Lesson

Faces Don’t Tell A Story

Objectives

This lesson demonstrates that we cannot tell very much about an individual by just looking at the person or by viewing a picture of the person and knowing only their last name.

Equipment and Materials Needed

Teacher-prepared pages of pictures showing only faces of individuals. Each page should contain approximately 16 pictures divided into groups of four per section.

Presenting the Lesson

Part I
Picture pages should be distributed to students in student groups. On a separate sheet of paper each student in the group is to select one picture from each group of four and write a brief description of the person in the picture. The description should include the following information:

What type of person is pictured?

Where does the person live?

What does the person do for a living?

How would you feel if this person lived next door to you?

Under each picture is a letter and number. Use these letters and numbers as your heading for the individual paragraphs.

Part II
A few days after the above lesson, students are given the same pictures and told to write a description about the persons they previously selected in the above exercise, but now each person pictured will have been given by the teacher an ethnic-sounding name. Names should sound Jewish, Irish, Italian, etc. Students will write descriptions as in Part I.

Summary and Evaluation

Student’s writings will be compared (Part I with Part II) to show that we cannot judge a person by just looking at him or by just knowing their last name. A full discussion on how we should judge people should ensue.

Vocabulary Words to Know

AntilocutionNativist
AvoidanceOpinion
BigotPhysical Attack
BrotherhoodPrejudge
DiscriminationPrejudice
EqualityRace
EthnicRacism
EthnocentrismRumors
ExterminationScapegoat
FactSegregation
GeneralizationStereotype
IntegrationStereotyping
IntoleranceTolerate

Student Activities

Homework:

Essay:

“How I Think My Life Would Be Different If I Had Been Born—White, Puerto Rican, Black, Jewish, Irish.” Students select one of the ethnic groups he or she does not belong to. (250-300 words.)

Viewing TV Ads:

Students will view approximately 25 television ads to understand and be able to clarify the value conflicts reflected in the many incidents of prejudice and discrimination shown on television, particularly in the ads. (Example: Frito-Lay ad with the “Frito-Bandito” shows Mexicans as sneaky thieves.)

Posters:

Students with artistic ability will have the opportunity to show various forms of prejudice through a visual display.

Inter-Racial, Intercultural, Values Questionnaire:

Students will answer the questions in groups during regular class after giving their individual answers. Students will have members of their own family take the same test, at home, to compare the students’ answers with their family, and to show the similarity and possibly differences in attitudes.

Reading Assignment:

Selection of book from student’s bibliography to be used as basis for class discussion.

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Bibliography For Teachers

Ackerman, N., and M. Jahoda. Anti-Semitism and Emotional Disorder. Harper and Brothers, 1950.

Allen, William G. The American Prejudice Against Color. Cash, 1853.

Allport, Gordon W. The Nature of Prejudice. Addison-Wesley, 1954.

American Jewish Committee. About 100 Books: A Gateway to Better Group Understanding. AJC Institute on Human Relations. (Bibliographies by age group.)

Banks, James A. Teaching Ethnic Studies: Concepts and Strategies. National Council for the Social Studies, 1973.

Banton, Michael. Race Relations. Basic Books, 1967.

Benedict, Ruth. Race, Science and Politics. Viking, 1959.

Bettelheim, B., and M. Janowitz. Social Change and Prejudice. Free Press, 1964.

——— Dynamics of Prejudice. Harper and Brothers, 1950.

Blalock, Hubert M. Toward a Theory of Minority Group Relations. J. Wiley and Son, 1967.

Carlson, L. and G. Colburn. In Their Place: White America Defines Her Minorities. J. Wiley and Son, 1972.

Cash, Wilbur J. The Mind of the South. Vintage, 1961.

Clark, Kenneth. Prejudice and Your Child. Beacon, 1963.

Count, Earl. This is Race: An Anthology. Abelsard-Schuman, 1950.

DuBois, W. E. Color and Democracy. Harcourt, 1945.

Ehrlich, Howard J. The Social Psychology of Prejudice. J. Wiley and Son, 1973.

Glock, C. Y. Adolescent Prejudice. Harper and Row, 1975.

Goodman, Mary E. Race Awareness in Young Children. Collier, 1964.

Gossett, Thomas S. Race: The History of an Idea in America. Southern Methodist University Press, 1943.

Handlin, Oscar. Race and Nationality in American Life. Little, Brown, 1957.

——— The Uprooted. Little, Brown, 1973.

Harris, Marvin. Patterns of Race in the Americas.

Lippmann, Walter. Public Opinion.

Lowenthal, L., and N. Guterman. Prophets of Deceit. Harper and Brothers, 1949.

Marcus, Lloyd. The Treatment of Minorities in Secondary School Textbooks. Anti Defamation League, 1961.

Montagu, Ashley. Idea of Race. University of Nebraska Press, 1965.

———. Man’s Most Dangerous Myths: The Fallacy of Race. World, 1965.

Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma. McGraw Hill, 1964.

Newman, Edwin S. The Hate Reader. Oceana, 1964.

Porter, Judith D. R. Black Child, White Child: The Development of Racial Attitudes. Harvard University Press, 1971.

Saenger, Gerhart. The Social Psychology of Prejudice. Harper and Brothers, 1953.

Simpson, G. E., and J. M. Yinger. Racial and Cultural Minorities: An Analysis of Prejudice and Discrimination. Harper and Brothers, 1953.

United Nations Commission on Human Rights. The Main Types and Causes of Discrimination. United Nations, 1949.

Van den Berghe, Pierre. Race and Racism. J. Wiley and Son, 1967.

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Suggested Books Suitable for Students

Allport, Gordon W. ABC’s of Scapegoating. Anti Defamation League, 1948.

Alpenfels, Ethel. Sense and Nonsense About Race. Friendship Press, 1957.

Baruch, Dorothy W. Glass House of Prejudice. Morrow, 1946.

Billings, Charles. Racism and Prejudice. Hayden, 1976.

Bowen, J. D. Struggle Within: Race Relations in the U.S. Norton, 1965

Carter, Hodding. The Angry Scar: Story of Reconstruction. Doubleday, 1959.

Epstein, B., and A. Forster. Some of My Best Friends . . . Farrar, 1962.

Gersten, I. F., and B. Bliss. Ecidujerp, Prejudice: Either Way It Don’t Make Sense. Anti Defamation League, 1974.

Gould, K. M. They Got The Blame: Story of Scapegoats in History. Association Press, 1944.

Hass, Ben. K.K.K. Regency, 1963.

Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted. Little, Brown, 1973.

———. Out of Many. Anti Defamation League, 1948.

and Mary F. Handlin. Danger in Discord. Anti Defamation League, 1948.

Hirsch, S. Carl. The Riddle of Racism. Viking, 1972.

———. Racism in America. McDougal, Tittel, 1974.

Hoff, Rhoda. America’s Immigrants. Walck, 1974.

Kennedy, John F. A Nation of Immigrants. Harper, 1964.

Marrow, Alfred J. Changing Patterns of Prejudice. Chilton, 1962.

McCuen, Gary E. The Racist Reader. Greenhaven, 1973.

Miles, Betty. All It Takes Is Practice. Knopf, 1973.

Montagu, Ashley. The Concept of Race. Crowell-Collier, 1964.

———. Man’s Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race. World, 1964.

Nye, Loyal. What Color Am I? Abingdon, 1977.

Osofsky, Gilbert. The Burden of Race. Harper and Row, 1966.

Powdermaker, Hortense. Probing Our Prejudice. Harper, 1944.

Rose, Arnold. The Roots of Prejudice. UNESCO, 1958.

Turner, Mary. We, Too, Belong. Dell, 1969.

Van Til, William. Prejudiced: How Do People Get That Way? Anti Defamation League, 1948.

Wheeler, Thomas C. The Immigrant Experience: The Anguish of Becoming American. Penguin, 1971.

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Materials For Classroom Use

Filmstrips

Rumor Clinic

Anti Defamation League

A filmstrip consisting of only 4 frames. Demonstrates how rumors and stories become changed and distorted when told and retold. (see sample lesson)

We Are All Brothers

Social Studies School Service

A basic introduction to the problems of racial prejudice. Explains differences in skin color, intelligence and race. Discusses how fear and ignorance brings about prejudice.

What is Prejudice?

W. Schloat Productions

Two parts with records or cassettes. Part I explores the meaning of prejudice and individual values. Part II illustrates the results of extreme prejudice.

Films

The Eye of the Storm

Xerox

A twenty-five minute 16mm film which shows how a teacher introduces her class to the realities of prejudice and the reaction of the students and community to the exercise.

Belonging to A Group

University of Connecticut

Illustrates the need for people to respect and accept one another in a free society, the vital role of groups and the importance of the “feeling of belonging.” Points up community values. 16mm, 16 minutes.

Boundary Lines

New Haven Public School

A-V Center

An animated film which shows that the imaginary boundary lines that separate people have no basis in reality. 12 minutes.

Recordings and Tapes

N Is For Name Calling

Anti Defamation League

A 14-minute tape narrated by Marlon Brando with Sir Lawrence Olivier in a scene from “The Merchant of Venice.” Hits hard at stereotypes and prejudice and at the use of slang words and religious or nationality jokes.

Discussion Pictures

Focus

National Conference of Christian and Jews

A series of pictures depicting various, everyday incidents of young people. Students are asked to make up a story regarding each of the pictures exhibited.

Questionnaire

Inter-Racial, Intercultural, Values

Jay M. Brown

A series of twenty-five questions focusing upon cross-cultural values. Activity requires approximately one class period and can be used in small group settings.

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Resource Addresses

Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith

Connecticut Regional Office

1184 Chapel Street

New Haven, Ct.

Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith

National Office

315 Lexington Avenue

New York, N.Y.

National Conference of Christians and Jews

45 West 57th Street

New York, N.Y.

New Haven Public Schools Audio Visual Center

Winchester School

New Haven, Ct.

Warren Schloat Productions

Pleasantville, N.Y. 10570

Social Studies School Service

10,000 Culver Blvd.

P.O. Box 802

Culver City, California 90230

University of Connecticut

Audio Visual Center

Storrs, Ct. 06268

Xerox Films

Xerox Education Publications

245 Long Hill Road

Middletown, Ct. 06457

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