Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home

Famous Hispanics

by
Francisco Cintrón


Contents of Curriculum Unit 85.04.03:

To Guide Entry


Who are the famous Hispanics? To answer this question in its entirety, one must first take into account that Latin America covers a lot of ground. So are the Hispanics that through their exhausted efforts managed to gain recognition and fame by becoming literary figures in the history of Latin America.

There is a vast number of these Hispanic conquerors of fame and fortune in Latin America who from the discovery of the New World to the present time have gained historical recognition for their unique contributions to the development not only of the Latin countries, but other countries as well. To name them all in a single unit would be a very difficult task for anyone to accomplish because of both time and space limitations. It is in this spirit that I decided to focus my studies only and exclusively on those Hispanic figures who perhaps are lacking recognition in the Social Studies curriculum in the city where I’m currently teaching. After years of teaching Social Studies materials to both High and Middle School students, I notice the existence of a tremendous gap when dealing with areas of Latin America studies. The purpose of this unit is to fill the gap.

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Overview

Based on the preliminary overview of topic and readings and the individual interview with Professor Roberto Gonzalez Echevarr’a, Project Coordinator, and also, after the completion of a very extensive preliminary research (one week) about Latin American authors (writers) of Spanish literature, I decided (based on Dr. Echevarr’a’s suggestions) to focus my studies only on those famous hispanics from the Caribbean countries. Three countries were chosen: Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Two or three authors were chosen out of the many writers who have gained recognition all over Latin America (and the world as a whole) from each of these countries.

I. Goal

This curriculum unit provides a basic understanding to Middle and High School students who take Social Studies and/or Spanish courses. It will enhance the Social Studies’ curriculum being used. It is designed for both the high and low achiever students in the grade levels mentioned previously. Better classroom management will be established through small group activities, student participation, teacher praise of students and the academic competitive atmosphere in the classroom. Students will study and have a better understanding of the issues discussed according to the subject topics. Emphasis is placed on the work, life and success of some of the Caribbean’s most deservedly famous Hispanics.

II. Main Objectives and Strategies

The unit content deals with a series of simple and easy to understand objectives. These objectives can serve as a guide and will be easily taught. The instructions for each lesson are written at approximately the 6th or 7th grade “reading” levels. Both teachers and students will be able to learn more about the Latin American culture through the studies of the chosen author’s work, life and success. Both teachers and students will achieve a basic understanding about Hispanic poetry and creative writing which have become a part of the world of literature.

There are teacher and student instructions and exercise activities for each lesson. Each lesson will promote the following:

¥student writing skills;
¥student interest in literary writing;
¥development of student better understandings of poetry, fiction, etc. ...

III. Student Suggested Bibliography

The student will use it to do homework—independent assignments, or assignments under the teacher’s guidance. The students will benefit from these types of studies in many ways.

Examples:

¥the student will gain a wealth of knowledge during his/her research;
¥he/she will develop or improve his/her research methods etc . . .

IV. Teacher Suggested Bibliography

The teacher will enhance the lesson plan preparation by the use of the Teacher Suggested Bibliography list. As examples the teacher will be able to:

¥conduct research easily since the list will contain all the needed information about each book or material mentioned.
¥gain a wealth of knowledge as a result of his/her research investigation.
¥plan extracurricular activities to add to the ones in the unit.
¥exercise better judgment when grading and/or correcting the students’ work.
¥improve the classroom teaching and management.

V. Implementation of Unit Content

It is suggested that since the most important part of the unit content will lie in its implementation, the unit author, as a teacher of Social Studies (History), recommends implementation of the unit after the first marking period. By that time it is expected that the students will have a basic background of World History, geography and the use of maps which will enhance the students’ understanding of the Latin American unit.

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Only three Caribbean countries were selected for this curriculum unit (also at least two authors per country were selected). The countries involved are: Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). We will study each author’s life, success and work, and the country each represents individually. Also, the time setting of this unit extends from the 18th through the 20th Centuries. Our first country is Puerto Rico.

Puerto Rico:

One must be aware of the great amount of talented writers of Spanish American literature that emerged in this beautiful Caribbean island since its colonization. For the purpose of this curriculum unit, we will learn about the life, work, and success of those who have gained world recognition and fame. These three famous Hispanics are Luis Palés Matos, René Marqués and Eugenio Mar’a Hostos.

Let us take each of these authors individually. First we will talk about Luis Palés Matos and then we will continue our discussion with Mr. Marqués and Mr. Hostos.

Mr. Palés Matos’ life was a very exciting and busy one. He was born in 1898 and died in 1959. Many writers such as Pedro Juan Labarthe, Ricardo Gullón, Ventura Doreste, José Emilio Gonzalez, G.R. Coulthand, and Miguel Enguidanos, and most of all, David William Foster, who studied his life and work extensively, have indicated that Palés Matos was a born poet.

For critics such as Ricardo Gullón (La Torre, Nos. 2930, Jan.June, 1960, pp. 39, 41), Luis Palés Matos’ place in the history of Puerto Rican poetry is clear: he is the most important poet of Puerto Rico, the one who has best expressed the real qualities of his land, through his own Puerto Rican self.1 His poetry reflects a great sense of loyalty to what is his own. Palés Matos found great success in the huge arena of contemporary poetry in the Spanish language.2

Luis Palés Matos’ work basically tends to portray the problems and feelings not only of the Blacks, but also for all the people and these things that they loved.3 His work has an implicit unit. He modified Modernist language with his own expressions. As indicated by Jose Emilio Gonzalez (La Torre Nos. 2930, JanJune, 1960, p. 328), Palés Matos was among those writers who repudiated the conformist society of bourgeois comfort and boredom. In contrast, he created a naturalist Utopia, in which the Black embodies the primeval forces that can save an exhausted civilization. In other words, his “Negroid” poems tend to express idealistically his social consciousness and also, his great sense of artistic imagination. His books Shoeblacking of Kinky Hair and Negro Themes, have many poems with an African setting. There is not doubt about it, this famous Hispanic’s life’s achievements came about through his successful career as a writer of Afro-American poetry. And along this line, let us study our second and also most successful Puerto Rican poet, Rene Marques.

Unlike Palés Matos, Rene Marques’ work is contemporary. Mr. Marques’ career as a Modernist writer has been a very rewarding one. He was born in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, in the year 1919. He was the grandson of farmers, who instilled in him their religious and ethical values. His literary aspirations were extremely encouraged by Donna Padrina, his mother, who as a writer herself, was an ardent defender of Puerto Rican independence and women’s rights. She wrote many articles on political and feministic issues.

Marques was to become a farmer before he even thought of becoming a writer. Being the grandson of agronomists, Marques too followed in the family tradition, by earning an Agronomy degree from the College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts in Mayaguez in 1942. Shortly after graduation he began to work for the Department of Agriculture. He decided to stop pursuing this career after the second year, in order to follow his literary vocation. Soon thereafter, he traveled to Spain (1946) where he took literature courses at the University of Madrid.

During his stay in Spain and while conducting advanced studies in literature, he started to write for Puerto Rico’s most illustrious newspaper, El Mundo. With his column “Chronicles from Spain,” Marques’ literary career was launched. His first books which he entitled: Man and His Dreams, 1946, and The Sun and the MacDonalds, 1947, mark the beginning of his successful career.5

In 1949, Marques was awarded a grant by the Rockefeller Foundation, an opportunity that led him to leave his job with the journal El Diario and go to New York, where he studied drama at Columbia University and at the Piscartor’s Dramatic Workshop. It was then that he wrote Palm Sunday, a wellknown play, for a course on playwriting, given by Dr. Theodore Apstein at Columbia University.6

Upon completion of his drama studies, Marques left the University and returned to Puerto Rico. In 1950, he started to work for the Division of Community Education of the Department of Education. In less than three years he was promoted to the position of head manager of its Editorial Department. Such a position allowed Marques to sharpen his filmmaker skills. One year later (1951), he founded the Experimental Theater of the Ateneo, which he directed until 1954. In 1959, he founded with Eliezer Curet Cuevas the Book Club of Puerto Rico. During this time Marques wrote a great number of dramas, short stories, and novels. Among these writings were: Juan Bobo and the Lady of the Occident, 1955; Another Day of Ours, 1957; The Truncated Suns, 1958, A Blue Child For That Shadow, 1958; Modern Puerto Rican Short Stories, 1959, The Eve of Manhood, 1957; and The Oxcart, 1959, which became the first contemporary Puerto Rican play to be performed in Europe.7

Marques’ work continued to receive recognition. He earned the admiration of his colleagues when in 1958 he was awarded the Ateneo Prize for Achievements in the genre of short stories: The Living Room, drama A Blue Child For That Shadow and the novel and essay Literary Permission and Political Optimism in PresentDay Puerto Rico.8

Marques’ multiple achievements have secured his future, a great career as a writer, and must of all, a great place in the history of Latin American literature.

Eugenio Maria Hostos was able to build, but also was unable to see the fulfillment of the ideal he most loved as a child. He constantly dreamed of the independence of his beautiful island, Puerto Rico. Hostos saw Puerto Rico not as a tiny nation by itself, but as a member of a Confederacy of the Antilles, together with Cuba and Santo Domingo.9 Because of the Spanish were ruling in both Cuba and Puerto Rico he dedicated most of his life to the cause of their liberation. When, at last, Cuba obtained her freedom (1898), there was only a change of rulers for his native island, Puerto Rico. He never recovered from the blow of such disaster.10

While working heavily for Cuba and Puerto Rico liberation, Hostos had built, through education, for future times. In Santo Domingo (18791888), where he had settled with the hope of winning supporters for his project of a confederacy, he founded the first normal school of the country, giving it a curriculum of which science was the nucleus and established pedagogical methods that were in advance of his time. Since poor economic conditions prevented the immediate expansion of elementary schools, Hostos decided to establish a teaching program for teachers, hoping that the few would teach the many.11 Soon thereafter, this hope was fulfilled, and the influence of his school was huge; it changed the intellectual atmosphere.12

In Chile, likewise (18891899), he contributed many ideas to the advancement of public education. Then, in his last years (19001903), in Santo Domingo again, he reorganized the whole educational system there. Both his political and his pedagogical campaigns were carried out with the help of a large amount of writing.13 His first book, The Pilgrimage of Bayoan (1863), is a political novel. His best, Social Ethics (1888), was planned as a school text. His most brilliant pages are probably contained in the addresses he read when the first groups of normal teachers received their degrees in Santo Domingo, the first group of men (1884) and the first group of women (1887). Antonio Caso, the Mexican philosopher, calls the 1884 address, “the master work of ethical thought in Hispanic America.”14

As a thinker, Hostos is essentially ethical; at the same time, he is a rationalist, with a deep faith in the power of reason to ascertain truth. “Give me truth,” he says, “and I shall give you truth, with truth alone, shall rebuild the world as many times as you may have shattered it. And I should give you not only the world of matter, but also the world that the human mind perpetually builds above the natural world.”15 He compels himself to believe that harmony (i.e., ethical conduct, and truth) (mainly as knowledge) are the ultimate goals of human endeavor; he even thinks that the contemplation of the heavens impresses the law of order on our minds; but he ponders on “the eternity of efforts spent in the simple aim of making rational the only inhabitant of the earth who is endowed with reason,” and the vast spectacle of conflict in individual and social life is for him a perpetual distress.16 However, only by a constant heroic effort does he maintain his metaphysical optimism, his mystic faith in reason and in “the constructive power of virtue.17

In 1882, Hostos discovered a moral lesson in Shakespeare’s work, and wrote a superb essay on Hamlet, a psychological and moral analysis of all of the characters in the play. Critics who follow Hostos’ writing tend to indicate that he was born a writer, with a powerful imagination, shown, for example, in the description of the peasant woman who mistakes his school for a church, kneels before it, prays, crosses herself, and, “thus consecrated the temple.”18

Cuba:

Like Puerto Rico, Cuba too produced a great number of talented writers of Latin American literature. Again, because of the limitation of space, we must deal only with two of the many authors: José Marti and Nicolas Guillén.

Let us begin our studies of these Cuban writers first with José Marti. He was born in 1853 and died at the age of 42 years, in 1895. Marti gained national and international recognition as a Cuban hero. He was a fighter for freedom throughout his lifetime, and died in battle against the Spanish rulers.

As a writer, Marti’s poetry is said to be simple and moving. In 1882, he finished his first book, Ismaelillo, which was well received because of its new, and in a way refreshing, and emotional tauntness. Eight years later (1891) he completed his second book Versos Sencillos, which was published almost immediately in that same year.19

Few years later, in 1918, this book (Versos Sencillos) was to be regarded as an early antecedent of Sencillista poetry. It is obvious that José Marti’s work is the representation of the 19th century when a great deal of fighting for independence was taking place all over Latin America. But, although he died probably before his time, one cannot deny the success of this famous Hispanic life time, for his great achievements obtained during not only a difficult era, but in a very short period of time.

Another famous Cuban writer is Nicolas Guillén. This famous man was born in Cuba in 1902. Those who study his literary works tend to agree that as a writer of poetry, he is one of the best. Most of Guillen’s work can be found in his writing of “Afro American Poetry.” His poetry shows rhythms not commonly found in Spanish.20 Guillén’s first book was published in 1930. He entitled it: Motivos de Son. In this book he uses a demonic language which is “sonorous” and “exotic.”21 In 1931, a year later, he completed and soon thereafter published his very first book relating to Black themes to a social context. He entitled this Songoro Cosongo which is an indictment of a social system that allows exploitation.

Several years later, in 1947, a new book was completed and published. He choose as a title: “El Son Entero,” which is a combination of the best elements of his previous work.22

The popularity of Mr. Guillén in his country is ultimately unique. His poetry work is well known even to illiterate people. This author’s life has been and continues to be a very successful one.

Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

One cannot embark in literary studies about Latin America without taking a close look at the life, work and success of José Mar’a de Heredia. Born in 1803, his life was a very short one because he passed away in 1839 at 36 years of age.23

As described by Pedro Henriquez Urena in his book—Literary Currents in Hispanic America, p. 105—Heredia was the poet of a frustrated independence. He was the son of a great literary figure of his generation in Cuba, he was the son of a distinguished migrant family from Santo Domingo. During those years his country underwent many distressing crisis with the invasions of the insurgent slaves from Haiti. Because of his country’s difficult times, many of its men of wealth and culture were lost.

Heredia’s short life was full of multiple misfortunes. His father, José Francisco Heredia (17761820), was a very honest and humane judge who in an attempt to escape his country’s violence and political conflicts, migrated with his family to Venezuela in 1811.

After a year of fruitless exertion in Venezuela during the revolutionary period, his father once again decided to move with his family into Mexico, where soon afterwards he died in 1818. At this point, his son (Heredia) went to Cuba (1820-1823), to become part of a conspiracy to make that country free. Failing in his attempts to free Cuba in 1823, Heredia was sent to exile. He spent two years in the United States (1823-1825), and thereafter he left the United States to go to Mexico. In Mexico, Heredia became a resident. But, he endured many hardships because of the political unrest. He was able to see his country (Santo Domingo) again only once in 1836 when he visited it for a few weeks.25

Heredia’s work is the representation of his love for his native land, the Dominican Republic. “Return to the South,” is one of his most original poems. It was written in 1825. Soon thereafter, he finished his “Ode on the Teocalli of Cholula.” Heredia’s work is the most lyrical among our poetry and it is also the representation of those conflicting times. So Heredia’s life, although his poetry became a success, was a very troubled one. His work can be easily compared with that of José Marti because of the time factor. Both writers were born and died in the 19th Century. It is not my intention to make comparisons of any kind here, that will be done by both the teacher and the individual students during the learning process of the lesson plan exercise activities.26

Although José Mar’a Heredia’s roots are from the Dominican Republic, one can honesty say that he was more Cuban and Mexican than anything else. He spent most of his life in exile. However, Manual De Jesús Galván, although he too spent sometime in exile, returned to his mother country to defend Santo Domingo’s double heritage.

Mr. Galván was born in 1834, at the time when the Dominican Republic was under the control of Haiti country. He always saw the Spaniards as allies against the rule of their Black neighbors.27 He was a very strong believer of the Spanish ruling system. So in 1861, he supported, if not inspired, the decision to return to Spanish Rule.28

In 1865, and after losing in his political attempt to change the ruling, he was put in exile by the members of the Independence Party, who became winners of the governmental administration. A years later (1876), Galván returned to his mother country to collaborate with the new administration. It was then that he made up in his mind that Santo Domingo’s double heritage was to be defended. He knew that something needed to be done about the political crisis which his precious island was going through. He wanted to exalt its Indian roots but without renouncing Spain’s cultural and religious legacy. To this end he conceived the idea of an historical novel based on one of the earliest and most successful Indian uprisings.29

Resulting from his political crisis interventions, Galván completed his first novel Enriquillo which takes place from 1502 to 1533.30 The book was published in two parts; one in 1878 and the second in 1882. Today this book is known as a national classic in the Dominican Republic, and it was translated by Robert Graves. Although Galván didn’t succeed in writing a great historical novel, as some claimed, he proved to be a master at recreating some decisive incidents in his country’s long remembered origins.31

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Notes

1.Modern Latin American Literature, Vol II, MZ. Compiled and edited by David William Foster, p. 146.
2.Ibid.
3.Ibid.
4.Ibid.
5.Rene Marques, by Eleanor J. Martin, p. 38.
6.Ibid., p. 39.
7.Ibid., p. 40.
8.Ibid., p. 41.
9.Pedro Henriquez Urena, Literary Currents in Hispanic America, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, p. 155.
10.Ibid.
11.Ibid.
12.Ibid, p. 156.
13.Ibid.
14.Ibid, p. 157.
15.Ibid.
16.Ibid.
17.Ibid.
18.Ibid.
19.Into the Mainstream, by Luis Harss and Barbara Dohmano, p. 140.
20.Latin American Verse, by Enrique Caracciolo Trejo, p. 15.
21.The Borzoi Anthology of Latin America Literature, Vol. 1: From the Time of Columbus to the Twentieth Century, p. 341.
22.Ibid, p. 342.
23.Pedro Henriquez Urena, p. 105.
24.Ibid, p. 106.
25.Ibid.
26.Ibid, p. 107.
27.Ibid, p. 252.
28.Ibid.
29.Ibid, p. 253.
30.Ibid.
31.Ibid.

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SAMPLE LESSON PLAN

Lesson Plan I. Puerto Rico

Theme  Three Puerto Rican authors—Luis Palés Matos, René Marqués and Eugenio Mar’a Hostos.

Objectives  Students will be introduced to a basic understanding of each author’s life, work and success.

Materials Needed  Map of Puerto Rico, copies of the lessons, a dictionary and illustrations pertaining to the authors being studied.

Procedures
Step 1: The teacher begins the lesson by giving an overview of the island of Puerto Rico. To generate student discussions the teacher can write on the chalkboard the following questions:

1.Who are the Puerto Rican authors?
2.Do you know of any?
3.Why are we interested in studying the Puerto Rican authors?
4.Do you know about Puerto Rican poetry?
5.What is poetry?
6.What is a poet?
Step 2: Vocabulary Activities. The teacher will use the following words to introduce vocabulary activities. It is suggested that the vocabulary words should be written on the chaulkboard before the lesson begins.

poetry
loyalty
Modernist
Conformist
poems
setting
repudiate
exhausted
independence
agriculture
illustrious
optimism
Contemporary
success
utopia
civilization
idealistic
achievement
contrast
literature
agronomy
agriculturalist
career
Hispanic
Using the dictionary the students should be asked to find definitions of the words listed above.

Step 3: Small Group Discussion Activity. The teacher can divide the class into three or four groups and ask students from each group for definitions, at random, of the words listed. To achieve greater participation in this activity, the teacher will establish a contest where an award will be presented to the winning group.

Step 4: Making Comparisons. The teacher can have the students again divide into small groups for the purpose of competition and select a student from each group to distribute handouts of the lesson. Each student will read the lesson silently while the teacher writes the following information on the chalkboard:

Describe the following authors:

a. Luis Palés Matos,
b. René Marqués,
c.Eugenio Mar’a Hostos.
It is suggested that the student be given at least 20 minutes for answering these questions, leaving at least 15 minutes for group discussion. The teacher will select the winning group, distributing appropriate rewards. All students should be praised for their participation and effort.

Step 5. Writing Activity. To accomplish this task the teacher can become involved in one or two methods of instruction. The class can again be divided into small groups or students can work individually. This task will involve students writing their autobiography. When completed, the students will exchange their autobiographies and the teacher ask the students, at random, to present orally the autobiography of their classmate. So that no student will feel pressure regarding his/her autobiography, the teacher must emphasize confidentiality.

Step 6: Homework Assignment. The teacher may have a short-range or longrange homework assignments. As an example of a shortrange assignment would be a review of the daily lesson to prepare the student for the next step. The preparation of a composition is an example of a longrange assignment where the student would research the subject topic. The teacher would assign the topic in accordance with the subject being studied.

NOTE  It is recommended that a minimum of 5 school class periods be utilized for the completion of Lesson Plan I.

Lesson Plan II. Cuba

Sample Lesson Plan II

Theme  Two Cuban authors—José Marti and Nicolas Guillén.

Objectives  Students will be encouraged to compare their own autobiography with those of the authors.

Materials Needed  Map of Cuba, copies of the lessons, a dictionary and illustrations pertaining to the Cuban authors being studied. A bulletin board must be available for displays of the illustrations and the students’ work.

Procedures
Step 1: Warm-up Activity. The teacher begins with a review of the previous study on Puerto Rico and an introduction to the Cuban country. Questions will be presented by the teacher covering the subjects of both countries.

1.What have you learned about Puerto Rican authors and the country of Puerto Rico?
2.Name the three famous Puerto Rican authors studied.
3.Why are we interested in learning about the famous Cuban authors?
4.Do you know any Cuban authors?
5.How should we as a class begin our study of Cuban authors?
Step 2: Art Activity. The teacher will ask the students to draw the island of Cuba indicating with a black dot the location of the birthplaces of the authors being studied. The proximity of Cuba, the United States and Puerto Rico could be mentioned at this time. The teacher will choose the best drawings for display purposes on the bulletin board. Again, it is important that all students be praised for their efforts.

Step 3: Small Group Activity—Further Vocabulary Study—Once again the teacher can divide the class into three or four groups and assign five to six words from the above listed vocabulary (See Lesson Plan I) to each group for definition purposes. The groups will review the definitions of the assigned words to prepare for a definition and spelling review quiz. A student should be able to score 90% or better in order to demonstrate achievement of the task.

Step 4: Library Activity. The teacher can take the class to the library for the purpose of conducting further research on the Puerto Rican and Cuban authors being studied in this unit. This will prepare the students for further individual research using the Student Bibliography List.

Step 5. Group Discussion Activity. The teacher will begin the discussion by asking the class to write a short composition on their research conducted at the library. This activity should be given a minimum of 20 minutes time, followed by a group discussion. The teacher will select, at random, students to orally present their composition. The teacher will assign a student to collect all compositions for teacher review and grading.

Step 6: Homework Assignment. At this time the teacher will assign a longrange project. A project report is to be prepared by the students encompassing Lessons I, II and III (Lesson III follows). Students will be urged to consult the Student Bibliography List as well as reviewing topic covered in Lesson I and II. Teacher may allow students at least one week for completion of the project report, following the completion of Lesson III.

NOTE  It is recommended that a minimum of 5 school class periods be utilized for the completion of Lesson Plan II.

Lesson Plan III. Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

Theme  Two authors from the Dominican Republic—Jose Mar’a Heredia and Manual De Jesús Galván.

Objectives  Students will improve their writing skills, their research methods, their critical thinking and their academic interests in the studies of Latin American literature.

Materials Needed  Map of Santo Domingo, copies of the lessons, a dictionary and Santo Domingo illustrations. Also it is recommended that the reference book Modern Latin America Literature, Volume I, by David William Foster and Frederick Unger, Publishers, New York, be used by the teacher to expand lesson planning. This volume contains valuable information on Latin American writers listing each author by country.

Procedures
Step 1: Warm-up Activity. The teacher begins with a review of the previous study on Puerto Rico and Cuba and an introduction to the studies of Santo Domingo. Questions will be presented by the teacher covering:

1.Describe the life of any of the authors we have already studied.
2.Compare their work.
3.Compare their life with yours. The above questions must be written on the chalkboard before the class begins. The teacher will allow a minimum of 20 minutes for this activity, followed by a discussion.
Step 2: Introduction of two Santo Domingo writers and further review of the Puerto Rican and Cuban authors studied. At this point the teacher will use a chalkboard illustration with input from the students emphasizing the comparative qualities of each author.

Step 3: Art Activity. The teacher will ask the students to draw an illustration similar to the chalkboard illustration in Step 2. It is suggested that the teacher divide the class into group for the purpose of comparative discussion of the illustrations. A leader will be selected from each group to make an oral presentation of the illustrations. It is suggested that the teacher make this activity a “competitive” activity with the students choosing the group making the best presentation. As always, all students are to be praised for their efforts. Best illustrations will be displayed on the bulletin board.

Step 4: Review Activity. The teacher using the questions presented in Step 5 will generate discussion on the content of this unit, preparing the students for a unit evaluation test.

NOTE  At this point the teacher will need to monitor the progress of each student on the previously assigned research project and encourage the use of the library for further research information. The teacher should also remind the students of the completion date which should be set for the following week, giving the student ample time for completion following the close of the study of Santo Domingo.
Step 5: Test Activity—Suggested essay type questions.

1.What have you learned about the life, work and success of the authors studied? Write a short essay in answer to this question.
2.Compare your life with that of the authors studied.

NOTE  It is recommended that a minimum of 5 school class periods be utilized for the completion of Lesson Plan III.

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STUDENT’S ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Carrera, Andrade Jorge. Reflection of Spanish American Poetry. Translated by Bliss, Don C. State University of New York Press, Albany, N.Y., 1973.

This book focuses on issues dealing with the Spanish-American originality, and the social trend of their poetry.

De On’s, Federico. Luis Palés Matos Poetry (19151956), University Editorial. University of Puerto Rico Publisher, Rio Piedra, P.R., 1971, Revised Edition.

This book focuses on the lifetime and work of Luis Palés Matos. An excellent book for the student who wants to improve his/her writing creativity, and knowledge of contemporary poetry.

Fuentes, Carlos. Aura. Farrar Strauss and Giroux, prepared by L. Kemp. Printed and made in Mexico, 1982 Edition.

This is a short novel that focuses on the history of Mexico. It is an excellent fictional story that will capture the student’s imagination because of its myth.

Garcia, Marquéz Gabriel. The Autumn of the Patriarch. Harper & Row Publisher, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1976.

Readable, this book is a fictional novel. It is a portrait of a hideous Caribbean tyrant—a dictator who always manages to get his way with little regard for human concerns. An excellent mystical novel for the student who desires to improve his/her’s critical thinking ability.

Garcia, Marquéz Gabriel. Ojos De Perro Azul. 2nd Edition Coleccion Metropolitana. Printed in Mexico, 1973.

Readable, this book is a collection of 9 short stories that are easy to read. Highly recommended.

Garcia, Marquéz Gabriel. Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Translated from Spanish by Gregory Rabassa. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1983.

A simple, easy to read novel. Highly recommended.

Marqués, René. The Oxcart (La Carreta). Translated from Spanish by Pilditch, Charles. Charles Scribners Sons, Inc., Publishers, New York, 1951.

This book was the first contemporary Puerto Rican play to be performed in Europe, in 1957. It focuses on the socio-economic and political development of the country man (E1 jibaro). An excellent and readable book. Highly recommended for use by students studying this unit.

Menton, Seymour. Prose Fiction of the Cuban Revolution.

Readable. An interesting overview about the Cuban Revolution.

Pendle, George. A History of Latin America. Penguin Books. Revised and reprinted in 1983.

This is a very interesting and easy to read overview about Latin American history. The author focuses not only on geographical settings and sociological changes, but on the continuous development of the Latin regions from the time of their discoveries to conquest. Highly recommended for the student who wants to improve his/her knowledge about Latin American history.

Soto, Pedro Juan. Ardiente SueloFria Estacion (novel). Fiction—Veracruzana University, Xalapa, Mexico, 1961.

This novel is about a Puerto Rican generation without identity—teenagers raised in New York, in a neglected environment who, because of their Puerto Rican ancestry are called “Spiks.” They return to their beautiful island of Puerto Rico only to face the same—a hideous atmosphere of rejection because of their foreign upbringing. In this case, the Puerto Ricans treat them as Americans (Americanos). This book is highly recommended for students who want to learn more about the Puerto Ricans, and their way of life.

Subercaseaux, Bernardo. Narrativa De La Joven Cuba, Antologia. Editorial Nascimento, Santiago, De Chile, 1971.

Readable, this book focuses on the Cuban development. A contrast of what Cuba is and what Cuba was. Highly recommended.

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TEACHER’S ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, Imbert Enrique. Spanish American Literature. Vol. II. Revised and updated by Elaine Malley. Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1969.

This book’s contents deals with historical and literary criticisms. The author’s study is not just a presentation of names, titles and dates; it is, rather, a critical analytical appraisal of the verse, prose, and drama written in Spanish in the Americas from the time of the conquistadores (conquerors) to the present.

Brushwood, John S. The Spanish American Novel: A Twentieth Century Survey Study. University of Texas Press, Austin and London, 1975.

In this book the reader is introduced to several contemporary writers—including Carlos Fuentes, Gabrial Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa, who are described as high profile authors. SpanishAmerican contemporary fictional literature is presented by authors Miguel Angel Asturia, Jorge Luis Borges and others.

Cardenal, Ernesto. Zero Hour and Other Documentary Poems. Selected and edited by Walsh, Donald D. Translated by Borgeson, Paul W.; Cohen, Jonathan, Jr.; PringMill, Robert, and Walsh, Donald D. New Directions Book. Published for Laughlin by New Direction Publishing Corporation.

Readable, a collection of short stories, highly recommended.

Carpentier, Alejo. Tientos y Differencias. Arca/Montevideo, 1967.

Readable. This interesting novel touches base with the Hispanic dilemma. Highly recommended.

Fitts, Duddley. Latin American Poetry. Edited and published by Fitts: A New Direction Book, Norwalk, Connecticut.

This book focuses on poetry and its writers. An excellent collection of poems.

Fogelquist, Donald F. Juan Ramón Jimenez. G.K. Hall & Company Publishers, copyrighted 1976.

A focus on the life, work and success of Juan Ramon Jimenez.

Gallacher, D. P. Modern Latin American Literature. Oxford University Press, London, Oxford, New York, 1973.

In this book the author puts great emphasis on the work of various writers—beginning in the 19th century era and working his way into the 20th century era. Gallacher describes and contrasts the work of one writer with the work of another without being too critical.

Gallan, Richard J. Miguel Angel Asturia. TWAYNE Publishers, Inc., New York.

Readable. This book focuses on the life, work and success of Miguel Angel Asturia. Highly recommended.

Harss, Luis and Dohman, Barbara. Into the Mainstream. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, Evanston and London.

This book offers analysis and overviews about the life, work and successes of the Latin American writers. Some of the writers mentioned are: Ruben Dario, (Poetry 1820-1925), Cesar Vallejo, (Peru 18921938), and many others.

Hernandez, Feliberto. Obras Completas, Vol. 1. Arca Editorial S.R.L. Publisher, Uraguay.

A contemporary novel, this book focuses on three basic themes: (1) Por los Tiempos De Clemente Colling (Through Clemente Colling Times); (2) Otras Publicaciones Tempronas, and (3) Ineditos Anteriores A 1944. Readable. Recommended.

Martin, Rutgers Eleanor. René Marqués. The State University-Twayne Publishers: A Division of G.K. Hall & Company, Boston.

This book offers a complete insight into Rene Marques’ autobiography. The author places great emphasis on Marques’ childhood and adolescent life.

Oliver, William. Voices of Change in the Spanish American Theater. University of Texas Press: Austin and London.

In this book the author focuses on the studies of theater plays—based on the sociopolitical arena of the growning Latin American regions. An excellent book for classroom lesson planning use.

Soto, Pedro Juan. Ardiente SueloFria Estacion (novel). Fiction—Veracruzana University, Xalapa, Mexico, 1961.

This novel is about a Puerto Rican generation without identity—teenagers raised in New York in a neglected environment who, because of their Puerto Rican ancestry are called “Spike.” They return to their beautiful island of Puerto Rico only to face the same—a hideous atmosphere of rejection because of their foreign upbringing. In this case, the Puerto Ricans treated them as Americans (Americanos).

Stone, Blackwell Alice. Some American Poets: With an Introduction and Notes by Goldberg, Issac, Ph.D.

This book focuses on a series of poets and their work in both English and Spanish. Highly recommended for bilingual teachers and their bilingual students.

Torres, Rioseco Arturo. The EPIC of Latin American Literature. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1961.

This book deals with different segments of literature and a number of Hispanic authors. It addresses the political issues between the United States and its Latin neighbors. Excellent book.

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CLASSROOM MATERIALS

Globe Map Company, Inc. Maps & Globe Filmstrip Kit.

A portion of this filmstrip kit deals with scenes about Latin America and the Caribbean countries. Available upon order—Department of Audiovisual Education, New Haven Public Schools. Also, available upon order from the above publisher, 198485 catalog.

Globe Map Company, Inc. Wall Maps and Illustrations.

Wall maps and illustrations can be obtained from the New Haven Public Schools, Social Studies Department. Also available upon order, from the above publisher, 198485 catalog.

The following sources can be obtained from the Flame Company, 198586 catalog.

The Great Puerto Rican Men (Grandes Hombres Puertorriquenos)

A book with many illustrations dealing with the life and fame of the worldacknowledged and most famous Puerto Rican men.

Arce de Vazquéz. Lecturas Puertorriquenas: Prosa (Puerto Rican Readings: Prose)

Arce de Vazquéz. Lecturas Puertorriquenas: Poes’a (Puerto Rican Readings: Poetry)

A great book.

Sterling, Historia de la isle de Cuba (History of the Cuban Island.

Highly recommended book to be used with the study of this unit.

Lopez, Morales. Poes’a Cubana Contemporanea (Contemporary Cuban Poetry).

An excellent book. Also highly recommended to be used with the study of this unit.

Gimbernard. Historia de Santo Domingo (History of Santo Domingo).

Nuñez Molina, Geografia de la Republica Dominicana y Naciones de America Continental (Geography of the Dominican Republic and the Continental American Nations).

Excellent books.

NOTE  Other references sources can be obtained from the New Haven Teacher’s Center, Yale Teacher’s Institute and the Hamden Cooperative Migratory Program: Audio and Teaching Resources Department.

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Contents of 1985 Volume IV | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute

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