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Slavery: The American Way

by
Francisco Cintron


Contents of Curriculum Unit 87.01.05:

To Guide Entry


The general idea for the development of this curriculum unit content came from my teaching of a mini-unit dealing with Black history during the Black History Month Celebration.

Because there is much concern about the development and teaching of Black history materials in the school system where I’m presently working as a social studies-history teacher, I felt that specific curriculum, dealing with the specific study area in Black history is in great need. It’s with that spirit that this curriculum unit was developed.

Goals

1. This curriculum unit content can be used as a guiding vehicle for both teacher and student educational/exploration of Black history.
2. It will serve as an addendum to the existing social studies and history curriculums.
3. It will help expand the Black history curriculum material now in existence.

Main Objectives and Strategies

There are several objectives that I feel are to be given the utmost consideration when teaching this unit content. These are:

____- writing skills
____- reading skills
____- research methods skills
____- drawing skills
____- motivation
____- visual skills
____- maps, charts and graphs skills
____- develop or improve critical thinking skills
By using the strategies outlined in each sample lesson plan, teachers will be able to develop their own set of strategies. To help carry on the objectives and strategies in this unit, a list of reference materials will help meet such need. It’s recommended that teachers use it strictly during the teaching of this unit content only. The use of the reference materials listed in this unit will prevent teachers from wasting too much of their valuable time, design and plan better lessons, and improve their knowledge about historical events regarding the slavery and its impact in the development of the American society.

Although there are many possible topics on the subject of Slavery: The American Way, to meet the purposes of this curriculum unit project, I will limit myself only to the major ones.

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Background Information

The History and Development of Slavery.

The development of slavery in the Americas began in 1495 when the Indian natives on the island of Hispaniola, or Haiti, rose against their Spanish oppressors. According to the early historian Antonio de Herrera, hundreds of thousands of native Indians marched on the small settlement of Isabella, where Christopher Columbus had arrived a few months before with three ships (caravels) after an extended voyage of discovery to the West Indies.1

Columbus was the man in charge of those regions. Ferdinand and Isabella were conscientious monarchs who had instructed him to “honor much” the Indians and to “treat them well and lovingly.” But the discovers desperately needed gold. The Indians were unused to manual labor of any sort, and after being forced to work fourteen long hours a day, day after day, many began to get sick, others tried to run away, and many others just gave up working. As a result of the mistreatment, the Indians revolted violently against those who held them captive. Columbus marched out against them, leading a force of two hundred infantry and twenty horsemen. Many natives were killed, and the survivors once again were put to work even longer hours thereafter. Many of them died within a few days, totally unable to withstand captivity.2

Moved by the destruction of the Native Indians, Father Bartolome de Las Casas, later Bishop of Chiapa in Mexico and known as the Apostle to the Indians, returned to Spain, determined to save the few survivors. In 1517 he met with Charles V, who had succeeded Ferdinand and Isabella. At this meeting Father Las Casas implored the King to spare the last of the Indians. Realizing that there must be labor to work the plantations and the mines, Las Casas presented the new king what he thought was an excellent solution. Considering that already a considerable number of Black slaves had been brought to Haiti, they seemed happy and were hard workers, Las Casas, as an act of mercy toward the Indians, begged His Majesty to import other Blacks, at least twelve for each colonist.3 Others made the same plea to Charles V, though not always with the same humanitarian motives. The King was moved to pity, and there was also the highly practical consideration that the Indians were worthless as slaves and the Blacks extremely useful.4

Charles granted one of his favorite courtisans a patent which entitled him to ship four thousand Blacks to the West Indian colonies. This event was the beginning of the famous Asiento, an import license which carried with it the privilege of controlling the slave traffic to the Spanish settlements in the New World.5

With the king’s consent to set free the Indian natives and to replace their labor duties (obligations) with Black slaves, the development of a new power struggle between the New World and the Old World originated almost immediately. And with it slavery—the American way—developed.

As indicated by Herbert S. Klein in his book Slavery in the Americas, “Although England and Spain may have had different motives for undertaking imperial expansion, may have been operating in different historical epochs and dealing with unique national characters, they nevertheless faced the identical problem of establishing their control over frontier colonies thousands of miles from the metropolitan authority. In this attempt at impressing their wills greatest difficulties, not primarily from physical distance but from the opposition of their own colonial subjects, who sought as much independence from imperial direction as they could achieve. These colonists, indeed, wanted freedom from the so called “metropolitan power in all but name.” Slavery: The American Way, was the result of the struggle inherent in both England’s and Spain’s colonizing efforts, a contest which developed to determine where the true power was to be located—in the New World or in the Old, in the imperial monarchy ant its institutions, or in colonial leadership and its own organs of power.6

As the power struggle and strong desire for independence continued to increase at a rapid rate, the Americans colonies were bent on achieving an initiative that they had never possessed in Europe, that they had come to America to achieve. For example, through the outcome of the struggle, given an equal drive of both the Caribbean and North America, “Southerners,” colonies for autonomy, would be determined by policies undertaken, whether active or passive, by the Metropolitan Authority in the early years of conquest and colonization.7

For the institution of Black slavery, the importance of this conflict was paramount, since it would determine whether the local or metropolitan institutions would create and administer the legal codes concerning the Blacks in the Americas. This, in turn, would largely determine what forces would exercise a significant influence in the development of the colonial slave regimes for each of these authorities would be affected differently by various external factors.

As the colonial’s leadership grew stronger, local economic needs tended to be the dominant force in defining the legal structure of Black slavery and social attitudes toward the new American ways in the treatment of slaves.8

The Slave Trade

With the liberation of the native Indians came the need for a better work force in the colonial Americas. Once the patent was granted by Charles V, the new king of the Spanish empire, the slave trade business developed extremely fast. European slave masters began to profit either by the buying or selling of thousands upon thousands of slaves.

In spite of wars between European states, the slave trade flourished from the beginning and very soon it surpassed Charles V’s original estimate of four thousand a year. Bishop de Las Casas proved to be right—Blacks could survive under conditions impossible for the Indians and would work hard under the overseer’s lash.9

Antonio de Herrera wrote in 1601, “These Negroes prospered so much in the colony that it was the opinion that unless a Negro should happen to be hung he would never die, for as yet none have been known to perish from infirmity.” Herrera also noted that the work of one Afro-American Black was equal to that of four Indians.

As early as 1540, ten thousand Blacks a year were being imported to the Caribbean colonies. By the end of the century some nine hundred thousand slaves—by one estimate—had been shipped to the West Indies alone, not counting those sent to Mexico and South America.

Oliver Ransford, in his book The Slave Trade discussed the phenomenon of slavery the American way. He indicated that the number of Africans torn from their homes and forcibly transported to America during the course of the Atlantic slave trade will never be known. Conservative estimates suggest that the figure lies somewhere between fourteen and twenty million. But even this was by no means the entire toll of the trade.10

The Atlantic slave trade sponsored the four and a half centuries which followed the first real contact of white men with Afro-American Blacks in their own environment. It closed only a long lifetime ago, for the last Black cargo ship landed in Cuba as recently as 1880 and the slaves of Brazil were not emancipated until 1888.

The Atlantic slave trade introduced vast numbers of African Blacks in the Americas, and most of them came from Africa, especially Guinea which lay conveniently close. In the new world the Blacks worked very hard. They cut down forests, tilled the land, cultivated crops of sugar, cotton and tobacco, and helped to create a continent’s wealth. Thanks to their labors, great fortunes were founded in Europe as well as in the Americas, fortunes which played an important part in financing the Industrial Revolution in England and nevertheless, Spain, and so molded the form of the world in which we live today.11

The physical conditions under which the Afro-American Black slaves worked and suffered varied according to their destinations and/or rules and regulations imposed upon them by their white masters. The ruthless way the white masters treated their Black slaves can be a good example of slavery, the American way.12

The White Master and the Slave Revolt

What was a slave revolt? Was the white master responsible for the slaves’ violent behavior? Although there can be many reasons given to answer these questions, without a doubt, a struggle for freedom was probably the main cause for it to have occurred.

As indicated by Eugene I. Genovese in his book From Rebellion to Revolution, Chapter One: Slave Revolts in Hemisphere Perspective, “the revolts of Black slaves in the modern world had a special character and historical significance for they occurred within a worldwide capitalist mode of production.”13

The slave system of the New World arose from a conjunctive of international and regional developments, themselves generated primarily by the exigenues of the world market. But, some systems, most notably the Iberians, had roots in serqneural metropolises, whereas others, most notably the English, had roots in the world’s most advanced bourgeois metropolis.

The English colonies of North America generated the slave system in which the white master-slave relationship most profoundly affected regional history, for there the slave holders most closely approximated a class-for-itself with considerable political power and autonomous aspirations.

The English colonies in the Latin countries, especially in the Caribbean, in contrast, generated a slave system most thoroughly borugeous and subservient to world capitalism. Whatever else may be said of the revolts, everywhere they formed part of the political opposition to European capitalism’s bloody conquest of the world and the attendant subjugation of the colored peopled.14

By the end of the eighteenth century, the historical content of the slave revolts shifted decisively from attempts to secure freedom from slavery to attempts to overthrow slavery as a social system. The revolts in the United States, or in any other country, must be viewed as a world context. For example, many revolts began as more or less spontaneous acts of desperation against extreme severity, hunger, sudden withdrawal of privileges, or other local or immediate conditions. These sometimes, but not often, passed into warfare against particular injustices, even as defined by the customary arrangements of slavery. Other revolts, as well as guerrilla wars waged by the so called “Maroons” (i.e., groups of runaway slaves) aimed at withdrawing from slave society in an attempt to resurrect an Archaic social order often perceived as traditionally African, but invariably a distinct Afro-American creation.15

The white master (slave holders) of the Americas faced military challenge not only from slaves in open revolt but also from those who fled the plantations, grouped themselves in runaway communities, and waged guerrilla warfare. The Maroons (Cimarrones, Maroons, Quilombolo) plagued every slave society on which mountains, swamps or other terrain provided a hinterland into which slaves could flee—some Maroon communities became powerful enough to force the European powers into formal peace treaties designed to pacify the interior while recognizing the freedom and autonomy of the rebels.

In the Caribbean, for example, as the “Maroons” committees continued to increase, the white slave masters (Creoles) were given legal codes which provided them with full-scale recognition to the right of self-purchase, or coartacion. In a very short time the new legislation was spread all over the Americas colonies. The new system gave the white master a full-scale recognition of the slave’s right to personal property and to the making of contracts. Slaves were declared chattel without any rights to property or personal protection. Severe punishments were given for running away, and the white masters had the right to chastise slaves at their discretion and to the degree that they wished. Slaves could not make contracts and were excluded from even the minimal rights granted to children and other dependents.

As indicated by Herbert S. Klein, in his book African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean (Chapter 9: Slave Resistance and Rebellion): “Even rights to sacraments were qualified.” Slaves could not marry without the consent of their white masters and though required to be baptized, were not granted any specific time for religious education and worship.

In only one aspect was the code at all positive toward slave rights, and this was in terms of Manumission. Although no provisions were initially made for self-purchase, any slave who was freed by a white master was given full legal rights to citizenship. This aspect of the code was in fact quite advanced for its time and would cause an endless amount of conflict between whites and free colored in the 18th Century, especially in French America (Haiti).16

The fast development of bitter racial conflicts led to constant attempts by local white masters to restrict the freedom of slaves, which even led to short-term prohibitions of Manumission and denial of legal equality to those already liberated. As a result, more slaves runaway committees continued to grow stronger by the day. Many were destroyed as the plantations expanded into the inaccessible frontiers and ended their previous isolation. But these attacks could always be justified by the arrival of the latest runaways, many of whom were often not returned to their masters despite the treaty arrangements.

In all cases, slave revolts were the revolts of desperate men and women who could no longer suffer the abuses of slavery—the American way; and from the 16th century onward, there were slave rebellions in every slave society in America.17

The Slave Culture and its Impact to American Literature

The slave impact on American Literature has been and continues to be so strong that it is almost impossible for anyone to describe it without conducting a major research study on the subject. However, in the real sense, one cannot discuss issues about American Literature without making some sort of comparative study of its influence on the African Slave Culture. Evidently, it would be almost impossible for the American writers of literature to try to develop their work without it being influenced by the culture of the African Blacks.

As indicated in our previous topics, with the development of the slave trade on the American Continent came an impact of African Culture on literature. In Latin America, for example, the African Slave Culture became the roots for the flourishing of the American Culture. Writers of American Literature, include such authors as Alejo Carpentier, Gabriel Garcia Marquéz, Palés Matos, Fernando Ort’z, Nicolás Guillen, and many others too numerous to mention. The slave trade gave a new sense of culture development for the Latin American writers to bring about the heritage and well as traditions of the African Black culture.

A good book, where one can study not all but some of the previously mentioned writers’ works, was printed in 1976 by the University of New Mexico Press. This book entitled: The Black Image in Latin American Literature, by Richard L. Jackson, is a compilation of Latin American writers and their work. Here are a few of the long list of topics that can be studied in this book:

Cecilia Valdés: Literary Portraits and Ethnic Descriptions. This novel, that first appeared in 1839, with part two not published until 1882, became a classic on nineteenth century Cuban customs. It takes an equally paradoxical position toward Blacks.

Alejo Carpentier’s War of Time, is a collection of stories where tracing the Black slave culture can easily be followed throughout the book, especially in the short story entitled “The Fugitives.” This story deals with a runaway slave closely followed by the White Master’s dogs as the slave struggles to be free.

False Black Poetry by Fernando Ort’z researches into Black life and culture were preliminary to the Afro-Cuban movement where poets, using in part their findings, gave birth to poetic Negrism, a form of poetry characterized by African sounding words, rhythms, language etc. (See Bibliography for further reference to these books).

Black Writers in Latin America, which was also printed by the University of New Mexico Press in 1979, Richard L. Jackson gives another narrative study of some, but not all, of the most valuable writer’s of Afro-American Literature. In this book one can study topics such as the early development of Black Literature (1821-1921), major periods of Black Literature (1922-1949) and contemporary authors (1950-present). This is a narrative of the American writers and their work about Black Literature. (See Bibliography for more information on this book.)

Borges Milongas’: The Chords of Argentine Verbal Art, written by Ana Cara-Walker, is another of the many examples of the Black culture impact on American Literature. Here the author raises a series of argumentative issues about Jorge Luis Borges’ claim that “the Milonga is one of the greatest conversational forms in Buenos Aires.”18 All Jorges Luis Borges’ views about the Milonga issues are supported in his book on Milongas entitled Para Seis Cuerdas (For Six Strings). Borges’ poetry enlightened not only the author’s knowledge of slave culture but also served as topics of conversation in Argentina.

Without getting into too many details, I would like to elaborate, briefly, some important thoughts about the term “Milonga.” As indicated by Cara-Walker, African origin of the name “Milonga” comes from one of the Bantu languages. It is the plural form of Mulonga, meaning “word or “wordiness” and suggests, by extension, verbal entanglement and intricacy. (See Footnote 18 for source of reference on Borges, the poet.)

It would be extremely exhausting to mention all the literature that is available about the impact caused by the culture of the African Black slave at the beginning and after the development of Slavery: The American Way. But, in my opinion, the materials presented in this curriculum unit are more than enough evidence of its existence.

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Notes

1. Mannix, Danniel P. and Malcolm Cowley, Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, p. 1.
2. Ibid., p. 2.
3. Ibid., p. 3.
4. Ibid., p. 5.
5. Ibid., p. 8.
6. Klein, Herbert S., Slavery in the Americas: A Comparative Study of Virginia and Cuba, p. 1.
7. Ibid., p. 2.
8. Ibid., p. 3.
9. Mannix, Danniel P. and Malcolm Cowley, Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, p. 5.
10. Ransford, Oliver, The Slave Trade: The Story of Transatlantic Slavery, p. 1.
11. Ibid., p. 2.
12. Ibid., p. 4.
13. Genovese, Eugene D., From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World, p. 1.
14. Ibid., p. 1, 2.
15. Ibid., p. 3.
16. Klein, Herbert S,. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean, p. 195.
17. Ibid., p. 194, 195.
18. Cortinez, Carlos, Editor, Borges the Poet, p. 281.

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TO THE TEACHER

This appendix has been especially designed for your own use allowing the margin of creativity when developing classroom activities, in addition to the activities included in this curriculum unit.

It is recommended that the terms “Negro” and “Black” be used interchangeably so that the students will learn the basic originality of both terms.

It is my sincere hope that the design of this appendix will stimulate the students’ thinking as they study their assigned tasks.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix A—How slaves were stowed in the Brookes of Liverpool. The men’s room (C) is to the right, the women’s room (G) to the left, and the boys’ room (E) in the center. The upper illustration shows the six-foot-wide platform on which slaves were arranged “like books on a shelf;” they had no space above them to sit up. The deck itself (lower illustration) was completely covered with rows of bodies. (From Clarkson’s Abstract of the Evidence, 1971).

Above illustration from The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census, Philip D.Wisconsin Press, Madison and London, 1969.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix B—“Walking skeletons covered over with a piece of tanned leather.” Slaves on the deck of the Wildfire, captured and brought into Key West, April, 1862. Published in Harper’s Weekly.

Above illustration from The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census, Philip D. Wisconsin Press, Madison and London, 1969.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix C—Distribution of Negro Blood, Ancient and Modern

Stetson’s Projection of Slave Importa into British America, 1701Ð75.

Above map and table from Negro Anthology—1931Ð1933, by Nancy Cunard.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix D—Estimated Slave Exports from Africa Carried by the English Slave Trade, 1751Ð1807, based on Shipping Data.

The above information and statistics from The Myth of the Negro Past, by Melville J. Herskovits.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix E —Destinations of the Atlantic slave trade, 1811Ð70. Fig. by UW Cartographic Lab. Data.

Above from The Slave Economies: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives, by Eugene D. Genovese.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix F—Origins of slaves in Jamaica, Saint Domingue, and the United States in the eighteenth century. Fig. by UW Cartographic Lab. Data.

Above from The Slave Economies: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives, by Eugene D. Genovese.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix G—Destinations of the British slave trade, 1701Ð75. Fig. by UW Cartographic Lab. Data.

Above from The Slave Economies: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives, by Eugene D. Genovese.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix H—Slave imports during the whole period of the Atlantic slave trade. Fig. by UW Cartographic Lab.

Above from The Slave Economies: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives, by Eugene D. Genovese.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix I—Present distribution of black in the Americas.

Above from Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, by Danniel P. Mannix and Malcolm Cowley.

(figure available in print form)
Appendix J—Map of the New World.

Above map—Milliken Publishing Company.

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SUGGESTED LESSON PLANS

Lesson One—The History and Development of Slavery

Objective  After completing the lesson students should be able to:

1. Have a good understanding about the historical events that took place during the development of slavery on the American Continent.
2. Describe some of the major Colonial problems.
3. Analyze the main reasons that led to the need for slave labor.
4. Locate areas on a map.
5. Improve their communications, reading and writing skills.

Lesson Procedures

1. Warm Up Activity—The teacher begins the lesson with a general instruction of the lesson objectives and students’ learning expectations. It is suggested that the teacher write on the chalkboard prior to the beginning of the class:
____a. How many of you would like to work hard without getting some kind of pay or compensation reward?
____b. Would you like to go on living without rights?
____c. What is meant by the term slavery? Are you familiar with the term slavery? Where did you hear the term slavery?
2. Map Activity—Map Skills. Prior to the beginning of this activity, the teacher needs to make copies of the Western Hemisphere Map from the unit Appendix. The students are instructed to:
____a. Locate and label the areas shown on the map.
____b. Write a short paragraph describing what is shown on the map.
________The teacher will allow at least 20 minutes for the students to complete this task. The students then should be instructed to exchange their papers with each other. The teacher will observe and monitor the students’ process of exchanging the papers. The students will proceed to correct each other’s work as the teacher conducts a class discussion. All work should be collected and class credit given.
3. Small Group—Writing Activity. The teacher distributes copies of the lesson background reading material prior to the beginning of the class session. The students will read, silently, the background materials about the history and development of slavery. The teacher will allow at least 15 minutes for the students to complete the reading. The students will then be instructed to form four small groups, and each group will select a group leader. Once the class is divided into groups, the students should be instructed to do the following tasks.
____a. Write a summary of the reading material.
____b. Brainstorm each other’s ideas about the reading material.
____c. After completing the brainstorming task, the students should write a short summary report about their findings. Each group leader should make a five minute class presentation. All summaries will be collected and class credit given to each group member.
4. Follow-Up Activity
____A. Vocabulary. Again, the students should have been instructed to read the background material about the history and development of slavery. Prior to the beginning of the class session, the following should be written on the chalkboard: Find the definition to the words listed below. You may use your dictionary as needed.
________a. Development
________b. Plantation
________c. Infantry
________d. Captivity
________e. Horsemen
________f. Slavery
________g. Slave
________h. Caravels
________i. Metropolitan
________j. Chiapa
________k. Survivor
________l. Paramount
____B. Map Skills. The teacher will hand-out copies of the Western Hemisphere Map (see Appendix). The students are assigned background information on map reading and map interpretation. The teacher will write on the chalkboard the following information: On your Outline Map of the Western Hemisphere, locate and label the following information:
________a. United States
________b. Canada
________c. Alaska
________d. Mexico
________e. Panama
________f. Puerto Rico
________g. Cuba
________i. Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)
________j. West Indies
________k. Venezuela
________1. Paraguay
________m. Brazil
________n. Argentina
________o. Colombia
____Answer the following questions:
____Which of these countries are located in:
________a. North America
________b. South America
________c. Central America
____Name the countries involved in the development of slavery.
____Locate the label the following water routes:
________a. Atlantic Ocean
________b. Pacific Ocean
________c. Caribbean Sea
________d. Gulf of Mexico
________After completing the task the students should be instructed to exchange papers with each other for correction as the teacher reveals the correct answers during group discussion. The teacher will decide on the amount of time allowed for the students to complete this activity. The teacher will collect and grade all papers for class credit.
5. Library Activity—Quest. The teacher should schedule at least one class trip to the school library. The students should be instructed on a quest assignment involving the writing of a book report on the history and development of slavery. The students are instructed to conduct further investigations about their chosen topics while in the library. The teacher will monitor, observe and give assistance to the students and make a decision on the amount of time needed for completion of this task.
6. Summary—The teacher should end the lesson with a discussion on how the need for a strong labor force led to the development of slavery in America during the early stages of Colonial development and make further use of the illustrations shown in the unit Appendix.

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Lesson Two—Slave Trade

Objective  After completing the lesson students should be able to:

1. Study the main reasons that led to the development of the slave trade on the American Continent.
2. Locate and describe the slave distribution on a map.
3. Draw conclusive information from pictures or illustrations.
4. Improve their research methods.

Lesson Procedures

1. Warm Up Activity—Write on the chalkboard some of the vocabulary terms previously studied (see Lesson One).
Instruct the students to write the definition on a blank sheet of paper in their notebook, without using the dictionary. Allow 6-10 minutes. Discuss the vocabulary by selecting students at random to give the answer to the chosen terms.
2. Question Activity. Students will have been assigned background information reading on reasons for the slave trade. Teacher will write on the chalkboard the following questions.
____a. What is meant by the term or word “slave trade”?
____b. Was there any need for the development of the slave trade on the American Continent? Why? or why not?
____c. Name some of the people responsible for the development of the slave trade on the American Continent?
____d. Compare your way of life with that of the slave.
____e. What is meant by the term or word “Creole”?
____f. Who was Bartolome de Las Casas? What was his greatest achievement?
3. Map Activity. Divide the class into 4 small groups. After all the groups are formed, hand-out copies of the map—selected from the unit Appendix. The students should be instructed to locate and describe the slave distribution shown on the map. (Allow as much time as needed for completion of this task.) Select one student (group leader) from each group to report their findings.
4. Follow-Up Activity—Again divide the class into four small groups. The teacher hands out copies of pictures (illustrations) from the unit Appendix. The students are instructed to study and discuss the illustrations. Each student will write a short composition describing what they see in the pictures. After completing their own individual assignment, each group will discuss and compare their findings. Each group leader will make a short class presentation about their findings.
5. Summary Activity. End the lesson by leading students in a complete discussion about the pros and cons of the slave trade on the American Continent. Use sources of information provided in this unit reference materials to further illustrate your conclusive points.

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Lesson Three—The White Master and the Slave Revolt

Objective  After completing the lesson students should be able to:

1. Draw own conclusions about the power of the white master.
2. Analyze the major reasons for the slave revolt.
3. Compare slavery in different regions of the American Continent.

Lesson Procedures

1. Warm Up Activity—The teacher begins this lesson with a review of the previous study on “The History and Development of Slavery” and “The Slave Trade,” and an introduction to the study of “The White Master and the Slave Revolt.” The teacher will use his/her discretion when working with this activity. It is suggested to make use of the materials previously studies (see Lessons One and Two).
2. Small Group Activity. The teacher will divide the class into four small groups. Each group will select a group leader. Once the groups are ready, the teacher will distribute copies of illustrations taken from the unit Appendix. The students are instructed to carefully study the illustrations and to write a short composition describing what they see on the illustration. Allow 10-15 minutes for the students’ completion of this task. Upon completion of this assignment the students should be instructed to brainstorm each other’s written ideas and to write conclusive reports about their findings. Each group leader will give a five minute presentation about their findings. The teacher will collect all written conclusive reports and grade them for class credit. The teacher will do constant monitoring to make sure that each student is actively involved in their assigned group task.
3. Writing Activity. Prior to this activity the students should have read materials about issues dealing with The White Master and the Slave Revolt. To reinforce their learning on the issue, the teacher should distribute copies of the background information. Each student will read the background information individually and write a short summary about the White Master and the Slave Revolt materials. The teacher will collect all individual assignments and grade them for class credit. Allow at least one class period for the students to complete this task.
4. Follow-Up Activity—Again, prior to this activity, the students should have reviewed the reading materials about the White Master and the Slave Revolt. The teacher should have written on the chalkboard,
before class, the following questions:
____a. What is meant by the term “slave”?
____b. Describe the term “white master.”
____c. How was the Atlantic slave trade developed?
____d. How did the slave revolt start?
____e. Describe the life of slaves in America.
____f. Compare your own way of life with that of the early slave.
____g. Give the definition of the following terms or words:
________1. Manumission
________2. Maroon
________3. Slave Code
________4. Creoles
________5. Cimarrones
After the students have completed the follow-up assignment, the teacher will collect all class work, and grade it for class credit.
5. Quest Activity. The students will be instructed to write a book report on issues dealing with slavery. The teacher will distribute copies of the unit Student Bibliography to assist them in their individual research. The teacher will allow a minimum of three school days for students to complete this task. The teacher will also monitor students’ progress and will provide his/her assistance as needed. All projects will be collected on the due day. The teacher will grade and provide constructive comments, both verbal and written.
6. Follow-up Activity. The teacher should end this lesson with a summary review discussion of all activities. It is suggested, once again, to divide the class into small groups to brainstorm each other’s class projects. The students should have been instructed to write their own comments.

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Lesson Four—The African Slave Culture and Its Impact on American Literature

Objective  After completing the lesson students should be able to:

1. Recognize the values of the African slave culture.
2. Describe how the slave culture impacted American Literature.
3. Improve their knowledge about the American writers of Black Literature.
4. Improve their research methods, writing, map, reading and group participation skills.

Lesson Procedures

1. Warm Up Activity—The teacher will write on the chalkboard, prior to the class lesson, the following information:
____a. Describe some of the black slaves’ main characteristics.
____b. How did the black slave culture contribute to the development of the American Continent?
____c. Name some American regions where the black slave labor was necessary.
____d. How did the impact of the black slave culture influence American Literature?
________The teacher will allow a minimum of 15 minutes for the completion of this task.
2. Small Group Activity. After completion of the chalkboard activity the teacher will divide the class into four small groups. Each group will select a group leader. The students, using brainstorming activity, will discuss and write a summary of their findings on the above statements and questions.
3. Library Activity. The teacher will schedule a minimum of 1 trip to the school library. The students will conduct research on the lesson topic and write individual reports. The teacher will collect all reports and grade them for class credit, providing constructive written comments.
4. Follow-Up Activity—The teacher will distribute the students’ reports from the library activity. Students will be divided into their original groups and proceed to discuss each other’s research reports and teacher’s critique. The students will write, as a group, a summary report for oral presentation. The teacher will allow a minimum of 1 class period for this activity.
5. Quest Activity. The students will instructed to complete an additional research project on any topic of their choice as long as it refers to this unit. The teacher will allow a minimum of 3 school days for the completion of this activity by the students. The teacher will collect all research projects, grade for class credit, and provide constructive written comments.
6. Follow-up Activity. The teacher will end the lesson by providing further information about the lesson topic and conduct an overview summary of the unit.
NOTE: It is suggested that the teacher conduct evaluation activities as deemed necessary throughout the teaching of this unit.

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STUDENT’S ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Amado, Jorge, The Two Deaths of Quincas. Alfred A. Knopf Press, New York, New York. 1965 Edition.

An excellent book to be used with this unit’s quest activities. A good representation of the American Slave Culture impact.

Amado, Jorge, Jubiaba. Avon Books, New York, New York. 1984.

This easy-to-read novel focuses on the spirit of Jubiaba, the medicine man who inspires Antonio in his youth, follows Antonio’s physical and spiritual odyssey through tragedy and despair, teaching him to “love all those . . . who were shaking off the fetters of slavery. Highly recommended for students’ use with this unit’s quest activities.

Carpentier, Alejo, Explosion in a Cathedral. Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., New York, New York. 1963 Edition.

For the high achiever student, this book not only focuses on the themes projecting the impact of the American slave African culture, but it also gives joy to the reader that appreciates the value of good literature. Excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Carpentier, Alejo, Guerra del tiempo (War of Time). Editora Latina, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

This book compiles a collection of easy-to-read short stories. The author gives a direct approach to the conflicts of the American Black slaves (whenever they tried to be free) with a story entitled El Fugitivo (The Fugitives). This story focuses on a runaway Black slave who was hunted by the White Master’s dogs. An excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Carpentier, Alejo, The Pilgrim at Home. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University, 1977.

A collection of stories, easy-to-read, focusing on the history of Black culture and Afro-American Black heritage in most of the issues.

Foner, Laura and Eugene D. Genovese, eds., Slavery in the New World. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1969.

A series of stories focusing on the slave treatment in Latin America. Excellent book to be used with this unit.

James, C.L.R., The Black Jacobins. Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. New York: Vintage Books, 1963.

In this book the reader will find a series of events and causes focusing on the Haitian revolution. Excellent book for this unit.

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TEACHER’S ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bloom, Leonard, The Social Psychology of Race Relations. London George Allen and Unwin Ltd., Ruskin House Museum Street, Great Britain.

Focus on the Black Slave Culture impact on the American race development. Excellent book to use with this unit’s activities.

Baker, Donald G., Race, Ethnicity and Power: A Comparative Study. Routledge & Kegan Paul, Boston, Massachusetts.

Focus on the white power and racial development as compared with that of Blacks. Special emphasis is given to the political structure.

Cunard, Nancy, Negro Anthology—1931-1933. Negro University Press, New York, 1969.

This book is composed of seven parts. Each part must be studied carefully, hence each part carries a world of conflicting issues, all dealing with the American Blacks as they move toward the Equal Rights movement. An excellent book to be used with this unit’s quest activities.

David, Brion Davis, Slavery and Human Progress. Oxford University Press, New York, 1984.

This book gives justice to the American Black Slave Culture and its impact on American Literature. Highly recommended to be used with this unit’s activities.

Genovese, Eugene D., From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World. Louisiana State University Press, 1979.

This book focuses on conflicting issues about the American Black Slave’s search for civil rights and their struggle for survival in the white world. Excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Genovese, Eugene D., The Slave Economics: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

An excellent account of the American Black slaves’ struggle for economic development. Good book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Gibson, Donald B., Five Black Writers: Essays on: Wright, Ellison, Baldwin, Hughes, and Leroi Jones. Dodd, Mead & Company, New York, 1970.

Gratus, Jack, The Great White Lie: Slavery Emancipation, and Changing Racial Attitudes. Monthly Review Press, New York, 1973.

Focus on the white masters’ power over their Black slaves. Excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Herskovits, Melville J., The Myth of the Negro Past. Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts, Edition No 7, 1969.

A good account of the Black slave historical development in the American Continent. Excellent book to be used with this unit’s quest activities.

Jackson, Richard L., The Black Image in Latin American Literature. The University of Mexico Press, 1976.

This book focuses on the historical development of the African Black Slave Culture on the American continent. Excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Jackson, Richard L., Black Writers in Latin America. The University of New Mexico Press, 1979.

In this book the author presents narrative studies about the work of famous American writers of Black literature. Excellent book to be used with this unit’s quest activities.

Klein, Herbert S., Slavery in the Americas: A Comparative Study of Virginia and Cuba. The University of Chicago Press, 1967.

An excellent account of the American slavery development in both U.S.A. Virginia and Cuba. Excellent book to be used with this unit’s quest activities.

Klein, Herbert S., African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean. Oxford University Press, 1986.

An excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Kraus-Thomson, Black Folk: Then and Now. Kraus-Thomson Organization Limited, Milwood, New York.

A compilation of issues all dealing with transitional events that took place in past generations and presented with colorful presentations of what is happening now. Main focuses are given to the historical development and changes of the Black race, culture and literature.

Mannix, Danniel P. and Malcolm Cowley, Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Viking Press, New York, 1962.

This book presents a historical narrative of the slave trade and its development. Highly recommended to be used with this unit’s activities.

Mellafe, Rolando, Negro Slavery in Latin America. English translation by J.W.S. Judge. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1975.

The author of this book deals with the use of slaves, not only from Africa, but Chinese as well, as plantation laborers during the economic development of the Latin American Colonies. An excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Rout, Leslie B., Jr., The African Experience in Spanish America. 1502 to the Present Day. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Statistics on slavery are shown in this book to assist in making comparatives and inference of the Atlantic slave trade market.

Price, Richard, Editor, Maroon Societies: Rebel Sacred Communities in the Americas. Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, New York.

In this book the author deals with the Black slaves’ revolt against their white masters, and their continued struggle for freedom. An excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Ransford, Oliver. The Slave Trade: The Story of Transatlantic Slavery. Cox and Wyman, Ltd., Great Britain, 1971.

The author of this book deals with the many conflicts which developed during the slave trade. Good book to be used with this unit’s quest activities (see Appendix for added illustrations).

Rubin, Vera and Tuden, Arthur, Editors, Comparative Perspectives on Slavery in New York Plantation Societies. The New York Academy of Science.

In this book the author deals with the formation of Black slave communities, their life’s conflicts both social and economical, in the New World Plantations. An excellent book to be used with this unit’s activities.

Tyson, George F. Jr., ed., Toussaint L’Ouverture. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973.

This book compiles a series of events about a great general, who was a leader of the slave revolution in Haiti. A major focus is given to the slave revolt issues. Excellent book, highly recommended for use when teaching this unit.

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Contents of 1987 Volume I | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute

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