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Non-violent Protest Through The Ages

by
Olivia J. Green


Contents of Curriculum Unit 87.03.02:

To Guide Entry


INTRODUCTION

As a middle school teacher, I often witness students attempting to solve their disagreements and/or dissatisfaction with school’s policies through violent means. Students are not aware of alternative means of solving their problems. They seem to think that violence is the only solution. I feel that if students are taught that there are other means of obtaining favorable settlements, there would be less acts of violence in the school.

I selected the topic “Non-violent Through the Ages” because employing non-violent acts to accomplish a goal has been in existence for a long period of time. I selected the three individuals, Dr. Martin Luther King, Henry David Thoreau, and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, because they dealt directly with nonviolent means to accomplish favorable settlements either through writing or demonstrations.

The major concepts of this unit will include Dr. Martin Luther King’s views on non-violence that were influenced by examples set by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Henry David Thoreau. This unit will emphasize how civil disobedience has long been exercised in protest of unjust laws.

This unit will focus on the beliefs of Henry David Thoreau, Mohandas K. Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King. Henry David Thoreau was an American writer who is remembered for his attacks on the social institutions he considered immoral and for his faith in the religious significance of nature. His essay “Civil Disobedience” is his most famous social protest. In “Civil Disobedience”, he stated that people should refuse to obey any government rules they believe are unjust. He practiced the doctrine of passive resistance.

Mohandas K. Gandhi helped free India from British control by a unique method of non-violence resistance. His life was guided by a search for truth. Gandhi developed a method of direct social action based upon principles of courage, non-violence and truth, which he called satyagraha.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a black American Baptist minister who was the main leader of the civil rights movement in the United States during 1950’s and 1960’s. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for leading non-violent civil rights demonstrations. In spite of King’s stress on non-violence he often became the target of violence.

This unit will emphasize how non-violent methods proved to be a strong factor in obtaining favorable settlements. Nonviolent methods also taught people the importance of working together for a common cause.

This unit is divided into four sections. Within each section, a biographical sketch and beliefs of Henry David Thoreau, Mohandas K. Gandhi and Dr. Martin L. King, Jr. will be presented. This unit is designed for middle school students with average to below average abilities. This unit will be taught for a period of four weeks.

This unit will be taught in October with the attempt of curbing student’s violent behaviors early in the school year. The lessons will be presented as follows:

Week 1—Henry David Thoreau—

____Learning about his life, his writing and his beliefs.

Week 2—Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

____Learning about his life and beliefs.

Week 3—Martin Luther King, Jr.—

____Learning about his life and his beliefs.

Week 4—Review of the unit

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OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this unit are to have middle school students learn about ways Dr. Martin L. King, Mohandas K. Gandhi and Henry D. Thoreau used non-violence methods to obtain favorable settlements, to show how the peaceful boycotts became a new and effective weapon to gain rights for all people and to enable students to understand that any problems can be solved through the use of non-violence.

This unit is designed to be used for classroom discussion as well as independent reading projects. Through the viewing of several films on non-violence, students will be exposed to a variety of, personal experiences of people that used the methods of non-violence to obtain favorable settlements. From class discussions, independent reading, class projects and filmstrips, students will be aware that there is an alternative to violence.

Week 1: Henry David Thoreau

Student Objective

In this unit students will learn

1. Who Henry David Thoreau is
2. Events in Thoreau’s life
3. Thoreau’s beliefs and works
Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms:

1. self-reliance
2. transcendentalist
3. passive resistance
4. poll tax
5. civil disobedience
6. relativism
7. martyrdom
8. recluse
9. impending
10. activist
11. sovereign
12. propertied
13. secondary
Students will be able to:

1. Write a short biographical sketch of Henry David Thoreau
2. Give oral response to questions
3. Place events in correct order
4. Read “To a Different Drum: The Story of Henry David Thoreau” and complete a book report form
When I introduce students to the biographical sketch of Henry David Thoreau, I will begin with a quote of his.

“I am too high born to be propertied,
To be a secondary at control
Or useful serving man and instrument
To any sovereign state throughout the world.”1
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts in 1817. (Question: Where were you born? and when?) Unlike most writers of his time, Thoreau came from a family that was neither wealthy nor distinguished. His father made pencils in a small shop. His mother took in boarders. He was a graduate of Harvard. Thoreau believed that human beings find truth within themselves. He emphasized self-reliance and individuality. He believed that society is a necessary evil. He believed that a person must ignore customs and social codes and rely on reason. Transcendentalists believed that individuals should reject the authority of Christianity and gain knowledge of God through reason. (Question: Are there any family traditions that you know? What do you think would happen if you did not follow those traditions?)

Thoreau believed that people must be free to act according to their own idea of right and wrong, without government interference. For over two years he lived alone in a cabin near Walden Pond, near Concord, Massachusetts. Thoreau said, “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life”. He said that people should refuse to obey any government rule they believe is unjust.2 (Question: What is a rule? What are some rules you have at home? What are some consequences of not obeying a rule at home, at school or in the city?) Thoreau practiced the doctrine of passive resistance when he refused to pay poll taxes. He did so to express his opposition to slavery as it became an issue in the Mexican War. The taxes would go to support slavery. In the summer of 1846 Thoreau was arrested and jailed for non-payment of his poll tax. That evening someone, probably his Aunt Maria, paid the tax and he was released. Thoreau wrote the essay “Civil Disobedience” while he was in jail. “Thoreau’s chief purpose in ‘Civil Disobedience’ was to wean men away from their adherence to an insidious relativism and to persuade them to return again to the superior standard of absolute truth”.3 Thoreau’s argued that “it is not desirable to cultivate a respect for the law, so much as for the right”. Having established his principle, he goes on to present the most effective method of defending it, that is, by practicing “civil disobedience”, refusing to pay taxes, going to jail if necessary and thus by clogging the meshes of governmental gears and winning sympathy through martyrdom, making an aroused citizenry aware of the wrong and willing to right it. In “Civil Disobedience”, Thoreau’s appeal is based on obedience not to governmental law but to one’s own innate sense of goodness. (Question: Is breaking a rule worth going to the principal’s office? To jail?)

The ideas expressed in “Civil Disobedience” are to some extent an early reaction to Thoreau’s own dim sense of failure as a recluse from society. (Question: Have you ever spent a long period of time alone? What were some of the things you thought of? What were some things you did?) Existence at Walden Pond was an experiment for the purpose of finding reality. But subjectively real as life at Walden may have been, to judge from his famous report, it came to be unreal, apparently, when Thoreau was forced to compare it with the objective reality of the impending Mexican War which he encountered on his almost daily visits to town. There he would see his neighbors getting ready for what seemed to him a hateful and stupid enterprise. Its effect could only be the extension of the unjust institution of slavery and of the slaveholders’ power. Thoreau felt a deep personal disgrace in being associated with a government which was the slaves’ government also. So deeply did he feel on the issue that he was ready to warn that “this people must cease to hold slaves, and to make war on Mexico, though it cost them their existence as a people.”4 So great seemed the evil that there was no time to change the laws except by breaking them. Refusal to pay taxes was, in Thoreau’s mind, “the definition of a peaceful revolution, if any such is possible”. Otherwise, the conscience is wounded: “Through this wound a man’s real manhood and immorality flow out, and he bleeds to an everlasting death. I see this blood flowing now”.

Thoreau’s essay “Civil Disobedience” found a warm welcome from others who shared his intense desire for freedom. Mohandas K. Gandhi played a significant role in connecting the essay with non-violent resistance in Africa and India, and Dr. Martin L. King, Jr. cited it often during the civil rights movement of the 1960’s, as did the activists who protested against the war in Vietnam. (Question: What is a non-violent act portrayed in our study of Henry David Thoreau?)

Students will be assigned to:

1. write a short biographical sketch of Henry David Thoreau.
2. draw a sketch of Thoreau’s cabin at Walden Pond.
3. read To a Different Drum: The Story of Henry David Thoreau, and write a book report to be read orally in class.
4. place the following events in proper sequence:
___ Thoreau was arrested and jailed for refusing to pay poll tax.
___ Thoreau moved to a cabin near Walden Pond.
___ Thoreau wrote the essay “Civil Disobedience”.
___ Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts.
___ Thoreau’s Aunt Maria paid the tax and he was released from jail.

Week 2: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Student Objectives

In this unit students will learn:

1. who Mohandas K. Gandhi is

2. events in Gandhi’s life

3. Gandhi’s beliefs and works

Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms:

1. satyagraha

2. independence

3. campaign

4. sanitary

5. caste

6. assassination

7. tolerance

8. creed

9. non-violence

Students will be able to:

1. Write a short biographical sketch of Mohandas K. Gandhi.
2. Give oral answers to questions.
3. View a film and write a brief paragraph about the film “The Life of Gandhi”.
4. Read The Life of Mahatma Gandhi by Louis Fisher and complete a book report form.
5. Use a globe/map to locate India.
I will begin the discussion of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi with a quote of his.

“My life is dedicated to service of India
through the religion of non-violence
which I believe to be the root of Hinduism.
The religion of non-violence is not meant
merely for the riches and saints. It is
meant for the common people as well.”5
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
The most important leader in achieving independence for India was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi—The Great Soul. He was born in India in 1869. (Question: Locate India on the map/globe.) He is honored by the people of India as the father of their nation. Gandhi’s life was guided by a search for the truth. He believed that truth could be known only through tolerance and concern for his fellow man, and that finding a truthful way to solutions required constant testing. Gandhi overcame fear in himself and taught others to master fear. He believed in nonviolence, but also held that violence is better than cowardice. He lived a simple life and thought it was wrong to kill animals for food or to use their hides. (Question: How do you feel when you tell an untruth? Do you feel more comfortable when you tell the truth?)

Gandhi developed a method of direct social action, based upon principles of courage, non-violence, and truth, which is called satyagraha. In this method, the way people behave is more important than what they achieve. Satyagraha was used to fight for India’s independence and to bring about social change.6

In 1893, Gandhi went to South Africa to do some legal work. South Africa was then under British control. Almost immediately he was abused because he was an Indian who claimed his rights as a British subject. He saw that other Indians also suffered from discrimination. His law assignment was for one year, but he stayed in South Africa for 21 years to work for Indian rights.

Gandhi began to experiment with his new method of nonviolence action. He led many campaigns for Indian rights in South Africa and edited a newspaper, Indian Opinion. As part of satyagraha, he promoted civil disobedience campaigns and organized a strike among Indian miners. He developed a plan designed to better the situation of the Indians in South Africa. Gandhi told the Indians “Part of our sad condition stems from our own actions. (Question: Have you ever been punished? If so, do you think you were punished because of something you did wrong or because the person who administered the punishment did not like you?) Europeans say, with some truth, that Indians have dirty, unsanitary habits. They say we cannot be trusted to tell the truth. They say we cannot communicate with them, or even at time with each other.”

Gandhi suggested a five-point program to overcome these objections. He urged his fellow countrymen:

1. Always Tell The Truth, Even In Business. Let us get the reputation of being honest and dependable. Then Europeans will be glad to have us as residents, and they will want to do business with us.
2. Adopt More Sanitary Habits. Keep as clean as you keep your person. Learn from Europeans how to dispose of wastes.
3. Learn English. There are so many different languages in India that many of us cannot converse together. We must all learn a common language, and I advise English.
4. Forget Caste And Religious Differences. Let us all work together—Hindus, Muslims, Paris, Christians; high castes and low castes; indentured laborers and free. Then we can grow strong enough to make our influence felt.
5. Form An Association To Inform The Authorities of Our Hardships.7
Gandhi was arrested many times by the British, but his efforts brought important reforms. Gandhi also worked for the British when he felt justice was on their side. In 1930, Gandhi led hundreds of followers on a 200 mile march to the sea, where they made salt from seawater. This was a protest against the Salt Acts, which made it a crime to possess salt not bought from the government. During World War II, Gandhi continued his struggle for India’s freedom through non-violent disobedience to British rule. He was jailed for the last time in 1942. Altogether, he spent seven years in prison for political activity. He believed that it is honorable to go to jail for a good cause. (Question: Do you think it is an honor to go to jail for a good cause? What are consequences of going to jail?)

At the age of 78, while on his way to a prayer meeting, in New Delhi, Gandhi was assassinated. A high-ranking Brahman, who feared Gandhi’s program of tolerance for all creeds and religions, shot him three times. (Question: Do you know of anyone else that has been assassinated? Why do you think they were assassinated?)

Students will be assigned to

1. write a short biographical sketch of Gandhi
2. read Life of Mahatma Gandhi by Louis Fischer and write a book report to be read orally in class
3. view the film The Life of Gandhi and write a brief summary of the film

Week 3: Martin Luther King, Jr.

Student Objectives

In this unit students will learn:

1. who Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is
2. events in Martin Luther King, Jr.’s life
3. King’s beliefs and accomplishments
Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms:

1. civil rights
2. demonstrations
3. racist
4. segregate
5. boycott
6. democracy
7. colleague
8. citizen
9. protest
10. terrorist
11. justice
12. immoral
Students will be able to:

1. Write a brief biographical sketch of Martin Luther King, Jr.
2. Write important dates and events chronologically in the life of Martin Luther King, Jr.
3. View a film “The Life of Martin Luther King” and write a paragraph about the film.
4. Give a short play on the events of December 1, 1955, when Mrs. Rosa Parks was told to give up her seat on the bus. Act out her arrest, then show her explaining the reasons for her action to a group of reporters after she has been released from jail.
I will begin the discussion of Martin Luther King, Jr. with a quote of his.

“Non-violence is a powerful and just weapon. It is a weapon unique in history, which cuts without wounding and ennobles the one who wields it. It is a sword that heals. Both a practical and moral answer to the oppressed people’s cry for justice, non-violent direct action proved that it could win victories without losing wars”.8 (Question: What is a weapon? Can a weapon be a strategy one uses? Can a weapon be an invisible device one uses to obtain a settlement/goal?)

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a black American Baptist minister, was the main leader of the civil rights movement in the United States during the 1950’s and 1960’s. He was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. He had a magnificent speaking ability, which enabled him to effectively express the demands of black Americans for social justice. King’s eloquent pleas won the support of millions of people-blacks and whites and made him internationally famous. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for leading non-violent civil rights demonstrations.

In spite of King’s stress on non-violence, he often became the target of violence. White racists threw rocks at him in Chicago and bombed his home in Montgomery, Alabama. (Question: Why do you think white racist would want to bomb King’s home? Is this an act of violence or non-violence?) King’s civil rights activities began with protest of Montgomery’s segregated bus system in 1955. That year a black passenger named Rosa Parks was arrested for disobeying a city law that required blacks to sit or stand in the back of the buses. (Note: An in depth discussion would be held about Rosa Parks at this time and students will be assigned their parts in the play.) Black leaders in Montgomery urged blacks to boycott (refuse to use) the city’s buses. The leaders formed an organization to run the boycott and asked King to serve as president. In his first speech as leader of the boycott, King told his black colleagues: “First and foremost, we are American citizens. . . . We are not here advocating violence. . . .The only weapon that we have . . . is the weapon of protest. . . .The great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right.”9 (Question: What is a boycott? Why are boycotts necessary? Is a boycott an act of violence or nonviolence?)

Terrorists bombed King’s home, but King continued to insist on non-violent protests. Thousands of blacks boycotted the buses for over a year. In 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court ordered Montgomery to provide equal, integrated seating on public buses. The boycott success won King national fame and identified him as a symbol of Southern blacks’ new effort to fight racial injustice.

With other black ministers, King founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957 to expand the nonviolent struggle against racism and discrimination. At the time, widespread segregation existed throughout the South in pubic schools, and in transportation, recreation, and such public facilities as hotels and restaurants. (Question: How would you feel if you were asked to sit at the back of a bus because you belonged to a certain race? How would you feel if you had to attend a certain school across town because you belonged to a certain race?)

During the early 1960’s, King became increasingly unhappy that President John F. Kennedy was doing little to advance civil rights. King and other leaders then organized a massive march in Washington, D. C. The event, called the March on Washington, was intended to highlight black unemployment and to urge Congress to pass Kennedy’s bill. The high point of the rally was King’s stirring “I Have A Dream” speech, which eloquently defined the moral basis of the civil rights movement.

Following are excerpts from King’s famous speech “I Have A Dream”:

“I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed; “We hold these truths to be self evident; that all men are created equal”. “I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.”10 (Note: Students will be assigned to memorize excerpts from “I Have A Dream”.)

In 1967, King became more critical of American society than ever before. He believed that poverty was as great an evil as racism. He said that true social justice would require a distribution of wealth from the rich to the poor. Thus King began to plan a Poor People’s Campaign that would unite poor people of all races in a struggle for economic opportunity. The campaign would demand a federal guaranteed annual income for poor people and other major antipoverty laws. (Question: Do you think there are hungry and homeless people in America? Do you think the president is putting enough attention on poverty in America? What could you do to help the poor?)

While organizing the Poor People’s Campaign, King went to Memphis, Tennessee to support a strike of black garbage men. There on April 4, 1968 King was shot and killed. James Earl Ray, a white drifter and escaped convict, pleaded guilty to the crime and was sentenced to 99 years in prison.

King dreamed of a world that had not come into existence. Deep within him he wondered if there was any hope, any light, for this nation. Oppression and violence are still widespread. King wanted to show the people of the world that it is possible to bring about change through active non-violence. When facing evil, one can react on three levels, according to Dr. King and others:

1. Do nothing, or submit. This is the lowest and most immoral response of the three. To consent to evil against another, is to become an accomplice to the evil act itself.
2. Fight back, evil for evil, blow for blow. A violent response to evil is deplorable, yet it is more moral than spineless acceptance, for doing nothing confirms the evil doer in his ways, while degrading the victim even further.
3. Fortunately, there is a third and higher level on which one can respond to evil; active, nonviolent resistance, in which one seeks in love to create a better world. Gandhi called the method “twice blest, redeeming both the evil doer and the victim”.11 (Question: Which of the three is the best way to bring about changes?)
Gandhi said “Nonviolence is Truth”. Nonviolence is doing no harm, even to enemies. Nonviolence is to love the opponent even while persistently and aggressively attacking the evil he represents. Nonviolence is a means of laying siege to the conscience or the heart of the evil doer. Nonviolence is costly and exacts its price in suffering, as does violence, but its hope is that new relationships and a better society will grow from its suffering. (Question: Do you love your enemies? Do you hate your enemies? Explain the feelings love/hate. Which feeling is more pleasant?)

In nonviolent struggle, every person is eligible to participate, for the elderly and children are often more effective than the young, strong adults. Women are equal of men, for physical strength is not as important as commitment and love. Nonviolence is not rigid. In responding to aggression, the mind seeks alternative to violence, and moves like a moral judo expert, using the strength of the opponent to one’s own advantage. “Turn the other cheek” does not mean that one should allow oneself to be beaten to a pulp. It is admonition not to be caught in the trap of violence, but to seek alternative responses. One might accept a blow while seeking an alternative response. In a fist fight, you might receive many blows, so why quibble at a first testing blow when there may still be a way to avoid the entire struggle and preserve a good relationship? (Question: What are some consequences of fist fighting? Do you feel it is more beneficial to keep a friend or make an enemy?)

Students will be assigned to:

1. Write a short biographical sketch of King
2. Match dates with events in the life of Martin Luther King, Jr.
3. View the film “The Life of Martin Luther King, Jr”. and write a brief summary of the film
4. Act out a play on the events of December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks was told to give up her seat on the bus
5. Read excerpts from “Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom” by Edward Preston for class discussion

Week 4:

Activity I

Answer the following questions:

1. What could people do if they believed that a law of their country was wrong?
2. If you did not agree with one of your class rules would you obey it or disobey it? Why?
3. How was religion an important part of non-violent movement?
4. How did each of the following use non-violent methods to accomplish a settlement and/or goal:
____1. Henry David Thoreau
____2. Mohandas K. Gandhi
____3. Martin L. King, Jr.

Activity II

Match the following terms with the correct definitions:

1. self-reliance
2. transcendentalist
3. passive resistance
4. poll tax
5. civil disobedience
6. relativism
7. martyrdom
8. recluse
9. impending
10. activist
11. sovereign
12. propertied
13. secondary
14. satyagraha
15. independence
16. campaign
17. sanitary
18. caste
19. assassination
20. tolerance
21. creed
22. non-violence
23. civil rights
24. demonstration
25. racist
26. segregate
27. boycott
28. democracy
29. colleague
30. citizen
31. protest
32. terrorist
33. justice
34. immoral
(Note: Definitions will be supplied)

Activity III

Violent or Non-violent.

If the statement describes a violent way to act, write Violent. If the statement describes a non-violent way to act, write Non-Violent.

___ 1. The home of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was bombed.
___ 2. Dr. King told his followers to put away their weapons.
___ 3. Henry David Thoreau refused to pay the tax.
___ 4. The English troops shot at the marching Indians.
___ 5. He hit the boy who had called him a name.
___ 6. He told his friends that he was going to pray for his enemies.
___ 7. The boycott wrecked the company’s business.
___ 8. Police used their clubs to break up the meeting.
___ 9. Mrs. Parks refused to change her seat on the bus.
___ 10. Gandih organized a strike among Indian minors.

Activity IV

Do you agree or Disagree?

1. The best way to improve civil rights is to follow the idea of non-violence.
2. Non-violent ways of working for civil rights are too slow.
3. If we allow civil disobedience against one law, just or unjust, then people will disobey all laws.
4. Each person should have the right to decide for himself what laws he will obey or will disobey.
5. A government whose laws are disobeyed should not punish those who give reasons for disobeying the laws.
6. The Montgomery bus boycott was one of the most important events in the history of civil rights.
7. Boycotts should be used whenever people want to see a law changes.
8. Sending Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to jail helped the cause of black people more than it hurt it.
9. No person should hate those who wrong him because they don’t know any better.
10. Truth could be known only through tolerance and concern for other people.

Activity V

After reading the books listed in the students’ bibliography, have a group of students prepare a panel discussion. The topic for their discussion should be: Violence or Nonviolence?

The members of the panel should be ready to answer questions from other members of the class.

Activity VII

Choose a reformer named in the unit. Prepare a one-page report which tells about the early life of the person, how the person became interested in reform, what the person then did, and why he was important in American history.

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Lesson Plan: Martin Luther King, Jr.

Objective  Upon completion of this lesson the student will be able to:

1. Write a short biographical sketch of Martin Luther King, Jr.
2. Write important date and events chronologically in the life of Martin Luther King, Jr.
3. View a film “The Life of Martin Luther King, Jr.” and write a paragraph about the film.
4. Give a short play on the events of December 1, 1955, when Mrs. Rosa Parks was told to give up her seat on the bus. Act out her arrest then show her explaining the reasons for her action to a group of reporters after she has been released from jail.

Procedures

1. The teacher should introduce the lesson by listing the twelve terms on the chalkboard for students to define and discuss.
2. The teacher should distribute a copy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s biography for reading and discussion purposes.
3. The teacher should collect the biography for future references.
4. The students should be assigned to write a short biographical sketch of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
5. The student will view a film “The Life of Martin Luther King, Jr.”.
6. The student should be assigned to write a paragraph about the film.
7. The teacher will continue the discussion about Dr. Martin Luther King by presenting important dates and events in his life.
8. The students will be given a list of events in Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s life to put in chronological order.
9. The students will be assigned to read excerpts from “Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom” by Edward Preston for class discussion.
10. The students will be assigned parts in the play about Rosa Parks and the events centered around her arrest.

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Films Listing

1. “I Have A Dream”—The Life of Martin Luther King, 35 minutes.
____Bailey Films
____6509 De Longpre Avenue
____Hollywood, California 90028
2. “The Life of Gandhi”
I am presently trying to locate director and film company for the film listed above.

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Notes

1. Henry David Thoreau, Walden and Civil Disobedience (Virginia, 1983), p. 389.
2. Ibid., p. 15.
3. World Book Encyclopedia, Volume 19, p. 204.
4. Walter Harding, A Thoreau Handbook (New York 1959), pp. 8-9.
5. M. K. Gandhi, Non-Violence In Peace and War (Ahemdabad 1942), p. 187.
6. World Book Encyclopedia, Volume 8, pp. 24-25.
7. Elizabeth R. Montgomery, Peaceful Fighter Gandhi (Illinois 1970), pp. 52-53.
8. Glenn Smiley, “A Night of Dreaming and Sharing of Dreams”, Fellowship of Reconciliation Magazine, Volume 54, January/February 1987, p. 16.
9. World Book Encyclopedia, Volume 11, pp. 250 a-c.
10. Ibid, 250 b.
11. Glenn Smiley, “A Night of Dreaming and Sharing of Dreams., Fellowship of Reconciliation Magazine, Volume 54, January/February 1987, p. 18.

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Teacher’s Bibliography

1. Bishop, Jim. The Days of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1971. This book contains a biography of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s life.
2. Brown, Judith M. Gandhi and Civil Disobedience: The Mahatma in India’s Politics, 1928-1934. Cambridge, 1977. This book contains one of the accounts of Gandhi’s disobedience to British rules.
3. DaSilva, Benjamin. The Afro-American in United States History. New York: Globe Book Company, 1972. An account of the civil rights revolution.
4. Gandhi, Mahatma K. Non-violence in Peace and War. New York: Associated Advertisers and Printers, 1942. A chronological listing of all the important writings of Gandhi on the subject of non-violence.
5. Getis, Arthur. The People of India. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1982. An account of Gandhi’s method of peaceful resistance.
6. Harding, Walter. The Days of Henry David Thoreau. New York: Knopf, 1983. An evaluation and discussion of Thoreau’s essays.
7. King, Coretta Scott. My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Holt, 1969. An account of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s unselfish devotion to fight for justice, love and truth.
8. Montgomery, Elizabeth R. Peaceful Fighter Gandhi. Illinois: Garrard Publishing Company, 1970. Montgomery gives an excellent account and description of Gandhi’s ancestry and the environment in which he was raised.
9. Norman, Charles. To a Different Drum: The Story of Henry David Thoreau. New York: Harper, 1954. An account of Thoreau’s life at Walden and his love for nature.
10. Roach, Marilynne K. Down to Earth at Walden. New York Harper, 1980. An engaging miscellany of information about the world that surrounds Thoreau.
11. Sandborn, F. B. The Life of Henry David Thoreau. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917. An account of Thoreau’s ancestors and many essays written in his early youth.

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Student’s Bibliography

1. Fisher, Louis. Life Mahatma Gandhi. New York: Harper, 1983. This book contains a biography of Mohandas Gandhi’s life.
2. Hansberry, Lorraine. The Movement. New York: Simon and Shulster 1964. This book contains a good collection of picures taken during the late 1950’s and early 1960’s.
3. Norman, Charles. To a Different Drum: The Story of Henry David Thoreau. New York: Harper, 1954. An account of Thoreau’s life at Walden and his love for nature.
4. Preston, Edward. Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1986. A prophetic analysis of the movement.

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