|Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute||Home|
A sense of wonder Boys and girls everywhere wonder about the things they see around them. And they wonder about themselves, too.
And so, this book was made for mebecause I am someone special, and because I wonder about things.3 The problem that I ask myself as a teacher is: How do I provide substance for adolescents, wonders? How do I provide all of the information they are looking for?
- They wonder how their bodies work.
- They wonder about their secret selvestheir thoughts and wishes and the way they feel about things.
- They wonder if they are like everyone else.
- They wonder how they are different.
- They look for answers. And sometimes they find answers in books like this one.
I agree with Gwendolyn Richardson, a Fellow from the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. She states in her unit, “In Search of Self,” “Literature is an excellent source to help students in this stage of development. It offers innumerable opportunities for the student. To meet himself, encounter situations similar to his own experience and discover his own emotions.” She continues, “By reading, the adolescent can find solace in the fact that he is not alone in his thoughts and feelings and that someone understands his problems.”4
But what happens to adolescents who cannot read at age level, and who cannot enjoy even simple pieces of literature in order to find answers to their wonders? What happens to students who cannot cope with high frustration level or with remaining seated during long class periods, and who end up walking in the halls and are finally suspended? The student who cannot concentrate on a task for more than fifteen minutes and prefers to release his/her anxiety by talking constantly of family problems may also have difficulty. The following examples come from my class: “My father went to hide in New York because four men want to kill him.” “My brother was caught yesterday stealing a car. He is going to be on probation because he is under age.” (It happens that the brother who stole the car is also one of my students.) “We were taken to a shelter because our furnace exploded and my younger brother is burned and is now in the hospital.” “My sister disappeared and my parents cannot find her. The policemen are looking in other cities around New Haven.” “I don’t want to do nothing. I’m so tired. I went to bed at 2 o’clock last night, watching TV in the basement with my older brother.” And so on.
I am concerned about all of these things and others that arise in my classroom, a population of 12-15 year old Spanish speakers in grades 5-8 who hold very poor attitudes towards school in general, and who have very high rates of absenteeism. Most of them come from very large families who live in houses with poor sanitary conditions and who have very little knowledge about disease prevention, first aid or good nutritional habits.
Facing this reality prompted me to write a curriculum that focuses on adolescents’ social problem solving and health issues. There are several goals that I would like to achieve ln creating this unit:
|1.||To help students to improve school attendance and academic standing by having a better relationship with parents, friends, teachers and with the school environment in general.|
|2.||To teach students how to stay ln good health by helping them to learn about good habits of hygiene and nutrition.|
|3.||To teach students the basic principles of how to avoid contagious diseases.|
|4.||I will also include in this unit the importance of keeping first aid kits in the students’ homes and help them learn how to use them. It is of major interest to me that the students teach their parents many of the things they learn from this unit, including how to take a person’s temperature, how to read the thermometer, and how to select and prepare healthy meals.|
With the idea that students can address their own needs and help their families in cases of emergency, they will prepare their own kits by filling them with useful information that should be kept at home such as: what to do about acne, tips to avoid insomnia, what to do if they have dandruff, etc. I will also include things that concern the entire family including: a nutrient table to enable the parents and students to prepare better and more balanced meals, and sample recipes.
I would also try to include a list of simple goals that would help students to improve their behavior and their study habits.
This unit is designed to be taught in four weeks. During the first week I intend to arouse in my students an interest for themselves, their families, their teachers and their friends. I hope that they will begin to see themselves and others as human beings and as physical bodies with physical needs. We will discuss how all humans experience the same feelings, including, among others, happiness, love, anxiety, fear, and frustration. We will also look at different strategies that help us to cope with these emotions.
The curriculum for the second week would center around learning how to keep in good health. In discussing good nutrition we will talk about the nutrients that are in the food we eat. We will learn how to select a well balanced diet, avoiding excessive fat, junk foods, and other poor eating habits.
The third week of my curriculum would focus on hygiene, sleeping habits, and how to avoid contagious diseases. During this week we will also learn about the importance of keeping a first aid kit in the house in case of emergencies. Students will be trained in how to use a thermometer, how to read a temperature, and how to keep a record. I will expand my unit into the area of mathematics at this point by having the students prepare grids for record keeping, and teaching them to plot and read graphs.
|1.||Read books, magazines, menus and related materials.|
|3.||Participate in class discussions.|
|5.||Have the opportunity to watch films and see appropriate transparencies.|
|6.||Read city maps.|
|7.||Do library research.|
|8.||Receive guest speakers in the classroom.|
|1.||To help the students see themselves as precious and important human beings, able to think and express themselves freely concerning their feelings and emotions.|
|2.||To recognize that they are members of a family, of the school and a community, with rights and responsibilities.|
|3.||To help them learn to set simple goals and to think of possible consequences for irresponsible actions and how to avoid these actions.|
Words To Study
Procedure I will start by writing this poem, “Everyone is a me”5, on the board:
Everyone is a “me” ____Each person In my family is a “me.”
____And all people explore their world and learn about it. Students will:
- Every one of my friends is a “me.”
- ____Of course, all those “me’s” are people.
- So they are all alike in many ways.
- ____All people have human bodies.
- ____All people come into the world in the same way.
- ____All people have someone, or a few very special people, they love.
- ____All people laugh and cry, feel happy and sad and angry and afraid, do good things and bad things and brave things and kind things.
- read the poem
- comment on the poem
- copy it from the board
- use a dictionary
|1.||Someone challenges you to a fight and you feel upset.|
|2.||Your mother tells you that you can’t do something you want to do and you feel mad.|
|3.||Your friends try to convince you to smoke cigarettes, drink, or try drugs and you feel pressured.|
|4.||An adult blames you for something you didn’t do and you feel frustrated.|
|5.||A friend lies to you and you feel betrayed.|
|6.||Someone is spreading rumors about you and you feel furious.|
|7.||You meet new students and you feel worried about whether or not they will like you.|
|8.||Your friends are trying to get you to do something that might get you into trouble and you feel scared.|
|9.||You must undress for showers after gym class and you feel embarrassed.|
|10.||Your brothers or sisters are picking on you instead of being friendly and you feel angry.|
|11.||Your homework is difficult and you feel dumb.|
|12.||Your best friend argues with you and you feel nervous that you might stop being friends.|
|13.||Somebody likes your boyfriend or girlfriend and you feel jealous.|
Ex. Teacher: What does “me” mean? Student: Myself, I. Teacher: That’s correct. In how many ways are people alike? Possible answers: They talk; they walk; they think; they go to school. Teacher: That is correct. So if we can talk, think, go to school does that tell you something? Answer: Yes, we are human beings. Teacher: Very good answer, but besides all these attributes, human beings also have feelings. (Note: the teacher will write the word feelings on the blackboard and say to the class: Let’s look up the meaning in the dictionary. The teacher will write the meaning on the board. Ex. feeling . . . emotion, passion, a pleasant or painful mental state produced in a person in reaction to a stimulus such as : love, fear, sorrow, joy, anger, etc.”6 The teacher goes back to the poem written on the board and reads: All people laugh and cry, feel happy and sad and angry and afraid. Here the teacher asks questions and promotes class discussion. Have you ever felt sad? Afraid? When? Angry? When? What do you do when you are angry? etc. The teacher then continues analyzing the poem. ________“do good things and bad things and brave things and kind things.” Here again the teacher asks questions: What does “good things” mean to you? Possible answers: Help your parents, come to school. Teacher: Yes, good things produce pleasant feelings: happiness, joy, love, etc. What about bad things? What do bad things produce? Possible answers: People feel sad, mad, angry. Teacher: Yes, bad things produce unpleasant feelings. Here the teacher talks about pleasant and unpleasant feelings and explains both. Teacher: Which actions produce unpleasant feelings? Possible answers: Fighting with your brother or friend, not going to school, being bad in school, not respecting the teacher. Teacher: That’s correct. These are bad actions. You have to think that your parents, your brothers and sisters, your friends and teachers are also human beings. They also have feelings like you, and add: you know that unpleasant feelings produce stress. The teacher writes the word “stress” on the board and says, “Let’s look for its meaning in the dictionary.” Ex. “feeling: pressure, force”7 Teacher: Stress produces discomfort, anxiety, headache and even sickness. People with stress cannot concentrate on tasks, don’t eat well, don’t sleep well, feel very unhappy, etc. This is why people have to try to avoid stress. Here the teacher will introduce the problem solving program.
There is an important book by Dr. Herbert G. Birch and Dr. Joan Dye called Disadvantaged Children, Health, Nutrition and School Failure in which they cite important findings which I have included here in my unit in the hope that every teacher who works with these children will understand the reality of their lives, and at the same time feel motivated to help bring about changes in these students and begin to break the link between poverty and ignorance which the authors cite. In their book, Dr. Birch and Dr. Dye note a high correlation between poverty, malnutrition, slow physical growth and low academic achievement. The authors describe some of their studies which show a link between low social classes and the elevated rate of exposure to conditions of risk for later maldevelopments such as early pregnancy, birth complications associated with fetal and neonatal death due to brain injury. They state: “A large fraction do not die but, depending on the trauma, develop a series of disorders extending from cerebral palsy, epilepsy and mental deficiency through all types of behavioral and learning disabilities resulting from lesser degrees of damage sufficient to disorganize behavioral development and lower thresholds to stress.”9 They also state, “It is clearly beyond dispute that in these countries children handicapped not only by poverty but additionally by membership in a depressed minority are at much greater risk of leaving school without an adequate education than are their less disadvantaged contemporaries. Given their poor education, such children are doomed in young adulthood to either no employment or only marginal employment. As a consequence, their poverty is almost certain to persist into their adult life and be handed down to their children who will more likely than not repeat their parents’ patterns of school failure.10 The authors continue, “Over the past 10 to 15 years as the effect of nutritional deprivation on physical growth has become more widely recognized, concern has increased that malnutrition might not only be limited to skeletal growth but might also be exerting deleterious effects on the central nervous system and thus be functioning to depress the adaptative and intellectual capacities of the children who have been at nutritional risk in infancy. It has been clear that one characteristic of the clinical syndrome of nutritional stress was psychological disturbance.” There is an agreement in the reports from workers in many different countries, they say, that the single most common behavioral finding in malnourished children is apathy accompanied by irritability. The authors state: “ Children severely ill from any cause seem to lose all the child’s normal curiosity and desire for exploration, but so marked is this condition of unresponsiveness in malnutrition that renewal of interest in the environment has become in many clinical centers one of the most reliable signs of a child’s improving nutritional status.”11
In the beginning of this interesting book about the poor, the authors state: “In the newly emerging countries it has been recognized that educational failure is part of a cycle of poverty, social ineffectiveness and ignorance that is repetitive unless the links which build its component parts are broken.” How can we as educators help to break this link of poverty and ignorance? According to the authors, malnutrition is probably one if not the major cause for this syndrome. Then can we as educators help students and parents to improve their nutritional patterns? Can we create some awareness in students and parents of the important factors that contribute to maintaining healthy physical, intellectual and emotional development? I believe that as educators we definitely have an important role to play in breaking the link of poverty and ignorance.
The questions that come to my mind are: How can I help my students to recognize the importance of good nutrition in order to have good mental and physical growth? How can I motivate them to try different foods? How can I involve parents at the same time, since they are the family providers?
Keeping in mind that these students are not interested in reading and have low comprehension skills, the curriculum has to be simple to read and rich in visual and manipulative materials. The goals will be:
|1.||To help students to recognize the importance of good nutrition for healthy physical growth.|
|2.||To help students learn what good nutrition means.|
|3.||To enable students to identify the basic groups of food, their nutrients, and how these nutrients help their bodies.|
|4.||To involve the parents of these students in nutritional education.|
Procedure The teacher will start by presenting to the students transparencies of children with different types of diseases caused by malnutrition. The teacher will initiate discussion encouraging students to express their feelings and thoughts about what they see and about the consequences of poor nutrition. The teacher will explain to students that they will learn how to avoid these diseases by learning how to improve their eating habits and hygiene. The teacher will continue by explaining that even when money is limited, people can still eat healthy meals. Some of the points to be covered in this discussion can include: buying fruits and vegetables of the season; buying foods that contain the nutrients we need in order to grow; avoiding eating too much food high in fat, sugar and salt because of the health problems these can create; and getting the most value for their money by checking for sale prices and cutting out and redeeming coupons. The teacher will present to the students a table of contents listing foods, nutrients, and what these nutrients do to the body. Accompanying this table will be colored pictures of different kinds of food. (Note: These colored pictures can be obtained in supermarkets, in magazines and newspapers or from teachers’ suppliers. After analyzing the content table for two or three days, the teacher will present posters with the four groups of food: the milk group, the meat group, the vegetable and fruit group, and the bread and cereal group. Students will look at, describe, compare and analyze these groups.
|1.||Students will read names of foods, nutrients and what these nutrients do to the body.|
|2.||Students will classify foods according to the four different groups: milk, meat, fruits and vegetables, bread and cereal.|
|3.||Students will prepare their own posters by cutting pictures of food from magazines and newspapers according to the content table.|
|4.||Students can group pictures of food according to nutrients.|
|5.||Students and teacher could visit a supermarket to see the different types of food according to the four different food groups.|
|6.||The teacher can show the students how they can figure out the nutrients in foods by reading labels.|
|7.||Students will learn the importance of checking expiration dates.|
|8.||Students will learn the importance of selecting fresh and healthy food, especially milk, eggs, cheese, bread and others.|
|9.||Students can prepare a list of fruits and vegetables produced in each season.|
|10.||Teacher and students could prepare some easy and healthy meals in the classroom.|
|11.||Finally, students will copy down some easy recipes to prepare at home.|
In all of these activities the importance of good hygiene will be stressed, especially when cooking, when using cooking utensils, and before and after eating.
NUTRIENTS YOU NEED
|What does the nutrient||What foods have Nutrient||do for you?||this nutrient?|
|Protein||helps build muscles, bones,||meat, fish, chicken, eggs,||and teeth||turkey, milk, cheese, peanut||butter, beans|
|cereal, rice, potatoes, sugar, Carbohydrates||help the body cells get energy||spaghetti, corn, peas, fruits,||bread|
|Fats||keep the body warm||butter, margarine, mayonnaise,||give the body energy||peanut butter, oils, fatty meat,||whole milk, cheese|
|Iron||helps red blood cells carry||meat, eggs, beans, green||oxygen||vegetables|
|Calcium||helps build strong bones and||milk, cheese, peas, beans,||teeth||green vegetables|
|Vitamin A||helps you see in the dark||carrots, green vegetables,||helps build healthy skin and||butter, cream, whole milk,||teeth||cheese|
|Vitamin B1||helps keep the brain and nerve||brown rice, cereal, milk, meat,||cells healthy||fish, eggs, potatoes, bread|
|Vitamin B2||helps keep the skin healthy||milk, cereal, cheese, meat,||eggs, fish, chicken|
|Vitamin C||helps keep skin, gums, and||tomatoes, oranges, lemons,||bones healthy||grapefruits, potatoes|
|Vitamin D||helps build strong bones and||eggs, milk, butter, fish, oils||teeth|
|Water||helps the body digest food and||water, milk, juice||get rid of wastes|
1/4 tsp. salt
1 cup chopped dates
1/2 cup whole wheat flour 1 Tb. dolomite powder 1/2 tsp. baking powder 1/2 cup chopped walnuts 1/2 cup unsweetened coconut Beat honey and eggs until smooth; add next 6 ingredients and mix well. Spoon batter into greased square 9-by-9-inch pan and bake for 20 minutes in preheated 350° oven. Remove from oven and stir immediately. Cool 5 to 10 minutes. With buttered hands, roll cooked mixture into balls, then roll in coconut. Cool completely, then store in a tightly covered container in a cool place.
|Prep. time: 1 hour||Protein ***||B vitamins ***|
|Yield: 3 dozen||Calcium ***||Other: potassium|
|Magnesium ***||and iron|
1 151/2-oz. can unsweetened crushed pineapple, drained
1 cup diced celery
1/2 cup broken nuts
2 apples, unpeeled and diced
2 pears, unpeeled and diced
Celery-seed dressing (page 266) Rinse tuna in strainer with cold water; drain. Combine next 6 ingredients with tuna and cover with celery-seed dressing to taste. Mix well and refrigerate, covered, to blend flavors.
|Prep. time: 20 minutes||Protein ***||B vitamins ***|
|Serves 6 to 8||Calcium ***||Vitamin C ***|
1/4 cup honey
1 cup unsweetened shredded coconut
1/2 to 1 lb. dried apricot halves Chop almonds in blender a few at a time until you have 3/4 cup. Mix almonds, honey, and coconut. Form into 1-inch balls and place on apricot halves, flattening them slightly.
|Prep. time: 30 minutes||Protein ***|
|Yield: 2 dozen||Magnesium ***|
|Vitamin A ****|
|Other: potassium and iron|
1 8-oz. can unsweetened crushed pineapple In a blender or by hand, mash the cheese until smooth. Add pineapple with its juice. Mix well.
|Prep. time: 15 minutes||Protein **|
|Yield: 3 cups||Calcium **|
|Vitamin C **|
1/2 cup plain yogurt
1 Tb. honey, warmed
1/2 tsp. vitamin C crystals dissolved in honey
1 Tb. lemon juice
1/2 tsp. anise seed Combine all ingredients and whisk or beat until smooth. Cover and refrigerate to blend flavors. Serve with fruit salad.
|Prep. time: 5 minutes||Protein ***|
|Yield: 11/4 cups||Calcium ***|
|Prep. time: 10 minutes||Protein **|
|plus freezing time||Calcium ***|
|Serves 6||Vitamin C ***|
|Prep. time: 15 minutes||Protein **||B vitamins **|
|Yield: 20 pieces||Vitamin C **||Other: potassium|
|1 cup whole wheat flour||1/4 tsp. salt|
|1 tsp. soda||1/2 tsp. cinnamon|
|1/2 tsp. allspice||1/4 tsp. cloves|
|1 cup grated peeled raw potato||1 cup grated raw carrots|
|1/2 cup melted shortening||3/4 cup honey|
|1 cup raisins||1/2 cup chopped nuts|
|Prep. time: 30 minutes||Protein **|
|Serves 6||Vitamin A **|
|B vitamins **|
|Other: potassium and iron|
|1 cup seeds (after soaking)||2 Tb. Worcestershire sauce|
|2 Tb. melted butter or margarine||2 Tb. grated Parmesan cheese|
|Prep. time: 10 minutes||Protein ***|
|Yield: 1 cup||Calcium **|
|Prep. time: 30 minutes||Protein ***|
|Yield: 100 little squares||Vitamin C ***|
|Prep. time: 5 minutes||Protein ***|
|Yield: 4 servings||Calcium ***|
|Prep. time: 15 minutes||Protein ***||Other: potassium|
|Serves 6||B vitamins ***||and iron|
|Vitamin C ****|
For each serving
1 rib celery 2 Tb. pimiento cheese 1 Tb. sunflower seeds
|Wash and dry celery, stuff with pimiento cheese, and top with sunflower seeds.|
|Prep. time: 3-5 minutes||Protein ****|
|Yield: 1 serving||Calcium ****|
For each serving
1 slice Pepperidge Farm Party Rye Bread 1 Tb. each grated cheddar cheese and Monterrey Jack cheeses 1/2 tsp. mayonnaise 1 tsp. unhulled sesame seeds Alfalfa sprouts (optional) Top bread with mayonnaise, then add cheeses and sesame seeds. Broil until bubbly, cover with sprouts, and service.
|Prep. time: 5 minutes||Protein ****||Magnesium ***|
|Yield: 1 serving||Calcium ****||B vitamins ***|
|1/3 cup honey|
|1 tsp. paprika|
|2 Tb. celery seed|
|1 cup sunflower oil|
|Prep. time: 5 minutes||Calcium ***|
|Yield: 11/2 cups||Vitamin C ****|
|Prep. time: 5 minutes||Protein ****|
|Yield: 2 servings||Calcium ****|
|B vitamins ***|
|Prep. time: 15 minutes||Protein **|
|Yield: 3 cups||Calcium **|
|Vitamin A ***|
|Prep. time: 5 minutes||Protein ***||B vitamins ***|
|Serves 6||Calcium **||Vitamin C ****|
|Vitamin A ***||Other: potassium|
|1 box golden raisins|
|1 6-oz. bag dried apricots|
|1/2 cup unhulled sesame seeds|
|Prep. time: 20 minutes||Protein ***||B vitamins ***|
|Yield: 3 dozen||Calcium ***||Other: potassium|
|Vitamin A ****|
|2 cups plain yogurt|
|1 6-oz. can frozen orange-juice concentrate|
|2 tsp. vanilla|
|Stir together. Freeze in small cups with sticks in middle.|
|Prep. time: 10 minutes plus||Protein **|
|Yield: 15 popsicles||Vitamin C ***|
|Prep. time: 30 minutes||Protein ****|
|Yield: 2 dozen||Calcium **|
|B vitamins ***|
|Other: potassium and iron|
Referring to the importance of adequate medical care for children the authors state: “ The data of immunization indicate that poor children receive significantly less medical care than their more affluent contemporaries. Children from poor families go to either a doctor or hospitals much less frequently than children whose families are better off. But increasingly, It is not only through the chronically overcrowded clinics that the urban poor make contact with hospitals. Rather, they come in growing numbers to seek care from the hospitals’ emergency service.”15 They say that 1966 studies demonstrated that at Yale New Haven Medical Center 56% of them were classified by attending physicians as “nonurgent.” Patients using the emergency room were found as a group to be younger, poorer, more heavily non-white and more heavily in the lowest social class than the total population served by the hospital.” According to the authors, data from the National Health Survey show persons of all ages from low-income families consistently having fewer physicians visits under any auspices than those from better off families. Such findings, they say, “do not indicate a lower level of illness among the poor children.”16
These authors also talk about a high correlation between education and follow-through doctor appointments. They found that the level of the mother’s education was the most significant single source of variation in the rate of broken appointments. They say, “Children of such mothers are smaller at birth, die more rapidly and are generally in poorer condition in infancy than children born to the more affluent. . . .
During the school years, they eat irregularly, their health care continues to be almost totally inadequate, their housing is sub-standard, their family income is low, subsistence on public assistance is high and family disorganization commonplace.”17
Again, how can we as educators contribute to breaking this link of poverty and ignorance in order to prevent illness and school failure?
Objective With this purpose, during the development of this curriculum I intend to create a great deal of awareness not only in my students but in their parents as well. I want them to learn of the importance of good personal hygiene, the need for providing housing with good sanitary conditions, the need for immunization and regular doctors visits in order to prevent illness and to keep the family healthy, and to understand how these can lead to higher academic standards and more employment opportunities. I would also stress to the students the importance of each member of the family having a doctor who knows that person very well and who can help them if he / she is sick.
germs comfortable virus cells disease containers contagious pests bacteria dangerous immunization cleansers
Procedure The teacher will start by presenting to the students transparencies that show the different ways of developing diseases from such causes as: poor sanitary conditions, having contact with sick people, being infected by insects and other animals, and from contaminated food or water. The teacher will initiate class discussion by asking the students what they think of these pictures. The teacher will emphasize that it is a fact that if we get too close to other people who have contagious diseases, we will become sick; that we can also get sick from animals and pests that we have at home, or by using clothes or utensils that have been used by other people; and that we can get sick by eating food that has not been properly cooked or refrigerated.
The teacher will talk about germs, viruses, and the different types of diseases that they can produce. This lesson will be illustrated with transparencies, films and posters. In that way students can see what these germs look like. Teacher will explain to the students that bacteria can grow very fast when they are in a warm, dark and wet place. The inside of your body is warm, dark and wet. The inside of your body is a good place for bacteria to grow. In the body bacteria divide and make new bacteria cells. (Give examples to students of worms In the garden In a shady and humid place, how fast the worms reproduce by themselves.) The teacher will explain that as bacteria grow and divide, they make poison In the body. These poisons can make you sick. Germs can give you a sore throat when they grow in your throat; they can give you a stomach ache when they grow in your stomach. They can grow in your teeth and make cavities, and produce a bad toothache. Here the teacher will give more illustrations of different types of germs and diseases and will ask the students questions such as: How do bacteria and viruses get into the body? Explain: People who are sick often cough and sneeze, causing their germs to go into the air. If you are near them, you might breathe in these germs. The germs can grow in your body and make you sick, too. Also, food that has not been properly refrigerated or has been exposed to Insects can get spoiled. Germs grow in spoiled food. If you eat that food you will get sick. Flies and other animal pests can bring germs into your house when the house is not properly cleaned or when doors or windows are left open without screens.
The teacher might ask the class: Do you know that your body can fight and kill many germs? There are white blood cells in your blood. These cells can eat and kill bacteria, but white blood cells cannot kill viruses. The body makes germ fighters, called antibodies, to kill viruses. Antibodies are in the blood. It is easier for your body to make antibodies when you are healthy and strong. Sometimes antibodies and white cells are not enough to kill viruses and bacteria in the body, and many children and mothers die from diseases. Years ago many people were afraid to go to certain places or do things because they were afraid of a disease called polio. Many people died from polio; others could never walk normally again after getting this disease. Today we are no longer afraid of polio because in 1955 doctors made a special polio medicine. This medicine is called a vaccine. “The immune system of the body responds to the shot (or other immunization) by building up resistance to specific diseases, even if the person is exposed to the organism that causes it.”18 Here the teacher will show transparencies of how the immunization works in the body. The teacher will explain to the students that today doctors have many vaccines to prevent different diseases. Children are given vaccinations for measles, mumps, tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, German measles and polio. Doctors start giving vaccines to children when they are just two months old. People can still get sick from these viruses. People who do not want to get sick must be sure that they receive the right vaccinations. Parents must make sure their children get all the vaccines they need at the right time.
Here the teacher will emphasize the importance of visiting the doctor regularly; of being sure to keep doctor and dentist appointments in order to stay in good health; and will explain the importance of staying in good health in order to do well academically. To be healthy you must eat good meals (remind the students what we learned about good nutrition). You must get enough sleep, and you body must also get enough fresh air and exercise. You must also wear the appropriate clothes for the season and weather you are in. (Talk here about the different weather in the four different seasons and the appropriate clothing to wear.)
In a healthy house, chemicals and cleansers are kept in a place where children cannot get them. The same is true for knives, matches, plastic bags, paint, medicines and anything else that could be dangerous to a child. (The teacher will explain to the students the danger of each of these items when used incorrectly.) Here the teacher will ask questions and promote discussions encouraging the students to look for cause and effect, draw conclusions, and in other ways actively apply thinking and reasoning skills.
Possible answers: Go to the hospital. Go to the emergency room. Go to see a doctor.
Teacher: Emergency rooms are for more severe cases such as car accidents, falling down from a tree or other high place, severe burns, animal bites, puncture wounds, poisoning, severe bleeding, stomach pains, very high fever, etc. How do we know if we have a high fever? Every family should have a first aid kit at home. It is very important to have a thermometer to take the body’s temperature. In that way, we will not have to go to the emergency room if it is not really necessary. The teacher will explain that you don’t have to buy a first-aid kit at the drugstore; you can make your own. Here are the things you need:
|¥||A three cornered bandage (A strong one, not an old sheet.)|
|¥||A pair of scissors|
|¥||Some adhesive tape|
|¥||A roll of bandage|
|¥||Some sterile compress pads|
|¥||A bottle with alcohol|
|¥||A card with telephone numbers for the family doctor or a clinic or emergency room number|
|1.||Shake the thermometer down. Hold it in your fingers with the bulb down and check it.|
|2.||Read the thermometer. The line on some thermometers is red or blue; in others it is silver. The red and blue are easy to read.|
|3.||Move the thermometer back and forth until the light hits it. If it is not below 95° shake it some more.|
|4.||Put it beneath the tongue in the sick person’s mouth and leave it there for at least three minutes.|
|5.||Take the thermometer out and read it. You don’t have to hurry; the line will stay at the same place until you shake it. After you read it write the temperature down in case you have to call the doctor or for your own record.|
|6.||You must kill the germs on the thermometer. Do not use it on another person until you have cleaned it.|
What to do in case of an emergency with minor injuries. The teacher will explain in detail each of these:
|¥||when a person is bleeding|
|¥||when a person steps on a rusty nail (puncture wound)|
|¥||when mild burns occur|
|¥||when a person eats or drinks poison|
|¥||when a person is choking|
|¥||look at pictures, films and transparencies|
|¥||prepare bulletins illustrating the curriculum|
|¥||practice some emergency first aid procedures|
|¥||learn how to read a thermometer|
|1.||To enable students to talk freely about the different problems they confront regularly.|
|2.||To define stress and discuss situations that precipitate it.|
|3.||To begin to develop a stress and problem solving vocabulary.|
|4.||To introduce the problem solving approach as a method that effectively handles stress.|
Words to Study
- List of different tough situations that middle school students face regularly.
- Traffic light poster with the problem solving steps
- Chalk and blackboard
Procedure After talking with students about their own feelings, what things cause them the most stress, and the symptoms of stress, the teacher will present different situations to the students for discussion. The teacher will ask questions and allow the students to speak freely about how they would respond to any of these problems. The teacher will write on the board solutions given by the students, such as “I will fight.”, “I will break his nose!”, “I won’t talk to her any more.” The teacher will then introduce the word “consequence,” writing it on the board. Students will look it up in the dictionary to find out its meaning. Here the teacher will talk about cause and effect, and the possible consequences of reacting in certain ways to the problem. The teacher will then point to the poster displayed on the problem solving bulletin board and start analyzing the graphic with the students.
“Stop”What does it mean? “Calm down”What does it mean? “Think before you act”The teacher will give examples to the students. Finally, the teacher will help the students to set positive goals, think ahead of time about the consequences, and then go ahead and try the best plan.
|1.||To create student awareness of the great importance of good nutrition in order to be healthy and productive in school and at work.|
|2.||To introduce the concept of grouping foods according to their classification.|
|3.||To enable students to categorize food according to the four groups and to familiarize them with the number of servings they need daily from each group.|
- Posters with colorful pictures of food
- A basket with real food from the four groups
- Film: “Our Foods and Where They Come From” (If available)
- Paper and pencil
Procedure After a review of the previous lessons on nutrition the teacher will formulate different questions such as: What type of food do you prefer for lunch? Which types for breakfast? Which food is your favorite? Name three vegetables. Name three foods that are made from milk products. Later the teacher will give the students forms with four columns each one headed by the name of a food group:
The milk group ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ The vegetable and fruit group ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ The meat group ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ The bread and cereal group ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
|1.||Students will be asked to write in each column the names of the foods in the pictures and the foods from the basket.|
|2.||Students will be asked to classify food for breakfast for lunch and for dinner from the basket.|
|1.||To create student awareness of things that could happen at home.|
|2.||To enable students to give first aid to someone at home in case of emergency.|
|3.||To teach students how to use the thermometer and to keep records of the temperature taken.|
Filmstrip and cassette “The Thermometer” (i-m) if available A thermometer A bottle with alcohol and cotton Paper and pencil
Procedure The teacher will begin by explaining to the students the importance of having a first aid kit in the home and the special importance of having a thermometer available. (The teacher will explain that high temperature is one of the first symptoms when we have an infection.) The teacher will stress that it is very important to take the sick person’s temperature before calling a doctor or going to the emergency room.
The teacher will also explain to the students when they should call or go to an emergency room for treatment.
Before presenting the film the teacher will talk to the students about thermometers. She will explain their use the different types of thermometers: those used to check the temperature of the human body, those used for weather, those used in cooking, etc.
Activities The teacher will show the film about the thermometer. After the presentation of the film the teacher will ask questions and promote discussions.
The teacher will show a thermometer to the students and encourage them to touch it, read the numbers, etc.
The students will practice taking each other’s temperature being certain to clean the thermometer well after each use.
The students will practice keeping records of the temperatures in writing.
- ____It is the price of success.
- Take time to think
- ____It is the source of power.
- Take time to play
- ____It is the secret of perpetual youth.
- Take time to read
- ____It is the fountain of wisdom.
- Take time to be friendly
- ____It is the road to happiness.
- Take time to dream
- ____It is hitching your wagon to a star.
- Take time to love and be loved
- ____It is the privilege of the gods.
- Take time to look around
- ____It is too short a day to be selfish.
- Take time to laugh
- ____It is the music of the soul.
|1.||J. E. Showalter,and W. R. Anyan, The Family Handbook of Adolescence: A Comprehensive Medically Oriented Guide To The Years from Puberty to Adulthood. p. 7-8.|
|2.||Ibid. p. 39.|
|3.||Childcraft. “A Sense of Wonder,” in About Me, p. 14.|
|4.||G. Richardson. “In Search of Self,” in Adolescent Themes in the Twentieth-Century Short Story. p. 29.|
|5.||Childcraft. “ Everyone is Me,” in About Me, p. 11.|
|6.||Thorndike Barnhart High School Dictionary p. 364.|
|7.||Ibid. p. 935.|
|8.||J. E. Schowalter, and W. R. Anyan, The Family Handbook of Adolescence: A Comprehensive Medically Oriented Guide To The Years From Puberty to Adulthood. p. 23.|
|9.||H. G. Birch, and Joan Dye Gusson. “Low Birth Weight and Handicaps,” in Disadvantaged Children: Health. Nutrition. and School Failure, pp. 48-49.|
|10.||Ibid., p. 5.|
|11.||Ibid, p. 186.|
|12.||Ibid., p. 4.|
|13.||Ibid., p. 32.|
|14.||Ibid., p. 194.|
|15.||Ibid., p. 252.|
|16.||Ibid., p. 250.|
|17.||Ibid., p. 267.|
|18.||Ibid., p. 132.|
|19.||L. M. McGowan, and M. K. Hill, “Old English Prayer,” in Anthology of Poems, p. 5.|
Canario, J. and Mathias, M. Help! First Steps to First Aid. Hayward, CalIfornia: Janus Book Publisher, 1980. A Janus Survival Guide.
Chapman, A. H. The Games Children Play. New York: G.P.Putnam’s Sons, 1976.
Childcraft. About Me. Chicago, Illinois: The How and Why Library, Volume 4, World Book, Inc. 1987.
Greco, D. Who Are We? Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1976. A social studies program which includes survival, health, sharing and many other themes of interest to young students.
Kelly, P. Help! First Aid and Biology, Castro Valley, CA: Quercus Corporation, 1981.
Richey, K. Medical Language. Hayward, California: Janus Publishers, 1980. A Survival Vocabulary.
Scholastic Book Services. Maturity. New York: SCOPE/ Literature Contact, prepared by the Editors of Scholastic Scope, 1971. Growing Up Strong.
Birch, H.G., and Gusson, J.D. Disadvantaged Children, Health, Nutrition and School Failure. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Ward, Inc. A scientific assessment of the effects of poverty on the intellectual potential of children.
Farnham, M.F. The Adolescent. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers 1951. A sensible, eye-opening guide for every parent of an adolescent.
Ginott,H.G. Between Parent and Teenager, New York, N.Y. : the Macmillan Company, 1969. A discussion of issues around the fact that as parents, we need to be needed; as teenagers, their need is not to need us. The conflict is real.
McGowan, L. N. and Hill, M. K. Anthology of Poems in English. New Haven: New Haven Public Schools, Spring, 1991. A supplement to the English as a Second Language curriculum of the bilingual and ESL programs of the New Haven Public Schools.
Ortleb Y Cadice. Higiene y Enfermedades (Hygiene and Disease). St. Louis, Missouri :Milliken Publishing Co. 1971. 12 transparencias en colores 4 clises Hectograficos.
Schowalter, J.E. and Anyan, W.R. The Family Handbook of Adolescence, New York: Alfred Knopf, 1981. A comprehensive medically oriented guide to the years from puberty to adulthood.
Scope/Literature Contact, Maturity: Growing Up Strong, New York: Scholastic Book Services. June, 1971.
Smith, L. Food for Healthy Kids, Berkley Books, New York: Berkley Books.
Spock, B. Raising Children in a Difficult Time. New York: W.W. Norton Company, Inc., 1974. A philosophy of parental leadership and high ideals.
Weissberg, R. E., Caplan, M.,and Bennetto, L. Introducing the Social Problem Solving Program for Young Adolescents. New Haven: Roger P. Weisberg, Department of Psychology, Yale University. 1987-1988. A Rationale for Social Problem Solving (SPS) Training During Young Adolescence.
Contents of 1991 Volume V | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute