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I am currently teaching a kindergarten class of twenty-six children, twenty-three African-Americans and three Latino/Hispanics. The children range from four to seven years of age. The socioeconomic background of these students extends from low to middle class. Many of these students live in homes where both parents are present, though this is not the experience of all. I've had the pleasure of interacting with the fathers of many of these children as frequently as the mothers. This unique group of children exhibits a love for learning and an ability to work together which has made the job of teaching a very pleasurable experience.
The majority of the students are African-American but recently there has been a slow but steady increase in the number of children of Latino/Hispanic descent being enrolled. This increase demands that any unit done involving culture and history include a more ethnically and culturally diverse group of people than may have been necessary in the past.
Children today are living in a complex world in which knowledge is increasing at a startling rate. The skills and occupations needed to function in this information-based society may change as rapidly. Today's children need to be challenged to meet the demands of a global society and be prepared to make decisions concerning the community, nation, and world in which they live.
Children today are living in a culturally and racially pluralistic society. It is therefore important that children learn to appreciate their own cultures as well as the cultures of others. It is the responsibility of the educational system, parents, and adults on the whole to teach racial and cultural acceptance. People from diverse groups have to learn to live together and to resolve any racial or cultural differences in a socially acceptable way.
Multicultural education is a necessity if we are going to produce citizens who can work and play with others diverse from themselves in a positive way. It is only through education that the partitions of racism, prejudice, and bigotry can be overcome. Experience has shown that multicultural education is good for all children. A multicultural education should not consist of one special project taught once a year for a specified time but it should be diffused into the curriculum throughout the entire year.
As important as multicultural education is in today's society, it is crucial that children know their own culture and history. The educational process in the United States has for years propagated the belief that the values of the European segment of society are those for which each person should strive. These same teachings have been responsible for teaching certain minority groups that their race of people will never amount to anything and will never live up to the standards of other peoples. This imparting of information is not education. Education consists of teaching a person to think. When you control the way a person thinks you control the actions of the person. Children who are thus taught will not need to be told that they are inferior or incapable of learning but will automatically "fulfill" the role in which they are thrust.
The argument has been made in the past, that because minority groups are not tax paying citizens they should voice no argument as to how they are educated but should humbly accept the charitable contributions made to their uplift by those in control. This argument resurfaces every time a minority community reacts to the curriculum or treatment of their children. You can hear this same argument being voiced by those who stand in front of the children on a daily basis. The children are therefore portrayed as the subjects of handouts regardless of the actual progress made as a people. This has led to the generalizing of all people of certain ethnic and cultural groups and gives the power to those in control to dictate the abilities of this people to improve them.
The racial and cultural differences in people are not an indicator of superiority or inferiority. It may indicate that each race has special gifts that the others may or may not possess. By developing the gifts within their cultural group each group justifies its right to exist. Children need to know that their racial groups have made positive contributions to society and that they are still impacting society in a positive way.
This curriculum unit provides the children with the opportunity to read about the dreams, aspirations, and goals of people who were once children just like themselves. They will learn of the disappointments, hardships, and difficulties that these people faced and overcame. Knowing that others have passed this way before them and achieved their goals can only serve as a motivator as the children see themselves reflected in literature. Knowing one's own history is imperative if one is to have a positive base from which to understand others. History, which is the record of a person's past, tells a person where they have been and is a guide to where the people are going.
The main objective of this unit is to help the children celebrate the achievements of individuals of different ethnic groups by focusing primarily on the contributions made in the fields of music, sports, literature, science, etc. The basis of this unit lies in a language-based program. The literature utilized in this unit will consist mainly but not exclusively of non-fictional selections. The interdisciplinary approach will include reading, science, art, writing, and physical education. The emphasis here is not on the recall of facts but rather centers on exposure to the achievements of individuals of various ethnic groups.
Children need to see themselves and their experiences in literature. Literature is a powerful tool for building self-esteem in children and for fostering the ability to get along with others different than themselves. The integration of literature with the social studies curriculum provides a wonderful opportunity to foster self-discovery. By immersing the children in diverse literature, we provide opportunities for the discussion and evaluation of cultural and ethnic differences.
Through a rich selection of literature on persons of various ethnic and cultural groups, the children will learn about those who have made a positive contribution to society. The persons named in this unit can be introduced over a short period of time or the throughout the course of the year. Some of the names listed may be unfamiliar to the reader but it doesn't lessen the importance of their achievement. These persons have been selected from the past and present, which offers the opportunity for the children to read or hear about them through current events in the newspapers, magazines, and visual media of our time.
Social studies are the area of the curriculum that deals with people. It is through the social studies unit of the curriculum that the child learns to understand self - beginning with the family unit, then the community and expanding to the understanding of people on the other side of the world. The goal of the social studies unit is to produce a caring and thoughtful people who are well-informed, participating, and humane citizens.
This unit, Who's Who in America: Multicultural Achievers A to Z, does not have to be presented in alphabetical order for it is not the intention of this unit to teach the children recognition of the alphabet. The persons named in this unit can be introduced over a short period of time by introducing them in a continuous manner or they can be integrated into the curriculum in response to a particular holiday or day of recognition. For example: Daddy & Me, the story of the special parent/child relationship, between tennis great Arthur Ashe and his daughter Camera, is a wonderful story to read the children for Father's Day. This same story can also be used as a method of introducing the child to AIDS Awareness. The ways to utilize this unit vary according to the creativity and imagination of the classroom teacher.
Due to the limited space and the extensive nature of this unit, lessons have not been provided for each person listed in the Who's Who section. The format of the lessons is simple enough that the classroom teacher can add lesson plans for those individuals in whom he/she takes an interest. I've chosen to include lesson plans for the first three individuals listed in this unit. Each lesson begins with a brief synopsis of the life of the individual being studied. There are basic questions that I will ask as a check for comprehension and as discussion starters.
Ruby Bridges became the first African-American student to be integrated into New Orleans' public school system in 1960 at the age of six years old. She endured months of hostility, jeers, and taunts by white people and had to be escorted in and out of Frantz Elementary School by federal marshals. White parents kept their children home instead of allowing them to attend school with an African-American child. Ruby prayed for the people who jeered her and when on to excel in school that year. (Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles)
Benjamin Carson, an African-American neurosurgeon, was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1951. His father left the family when Ben was eight years old. His bad grades caused him to be called the class dummy. In ninth grade Ben reached the turning point in his life when he nearly stabbed a friend. Ben's grades improved and he went on to graduate from Yale University were he met his future wife, Candy. He studied medicine at the University of Michigan Medical School and now serves as chief of pediatric neurosurgery at Hopkins University Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. On September 5, 1987, Dr. Benjamin Carson performed an operation to separate the German Siamese twins who were joined at the back of the head. Dr. Carson credits his success to a mother who would not give up and God, who saved him from himself. (Ben Carson by Ben Carson)
Wilfred Denteclas, Jr., who became the first Navajo zoologist, was born in Shiprock, New Mexico in 1959. Shiprock is part of the Navajo Nation, a reservation located in the Four Corners area of the United States. As a boy, he cared for the animals on the family farm and became interested in diseases when the animals died due to some mysterious infection. He went to Fort Lewis College in Colorado, where he studied biology, and onto the University of California in Berkeley, where he received his doctorate in zoology. He encourages teens and Native Americans to take math and science courses and hopes to see more Native American scientists in the future. (Native American Scientists by Jetty St. John)
Amelia Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas on July 24, 1897, the daughter of a wealthy judge. She saw her first airplane at the age of eleven and considered the machine to be nothing too interesting. On Christmas day in 1920, she took her first airplane ride. This ride changed her life. She bought her first plane in 1921 and by 1928 she became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. She disappeared somewhere in the Pacific Ocean after setting off on a trip with her navigator, Fred Noonan in 1937. There was a great search but Amelia Earhart was never found. (A Picture Book of Amelia Earhart by David A. Adler)
Mary Joe Fernandez, a Hispanic tennis player, was born as Maria Jose Fernandez on February 19, 1998 in the Dominican Republic. She showed an interest and talent for tennis at the age of three. She won the United States Tennis Association Nations for players under twelve years of age. She graduated from Carrolton College in 1989. She holds two gold medals, one from the Olympic competition at Barcelona in 1992 and the other from the 1996 Olympic competition in Atlanta, Georgia. (Hispanic Americans by Globe)
Andres Galarraga is a professional Hispanic Professional Baseball player who was born in Caracas, Venezuela on June 18, 1961. He loved to play baseball as a young child. Today he plays major league baseball with the Colorado Rockies and is one of the best players in the field. (Hispanic Americans by Globe)
Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri in 1902. As a child he liked to read and write poetry. After his father moved to Mexico, Langston went to live with his grandmother in Lawrence, Kansas. He was often lonely and read lots of books. His grandmother told him many wonderful stories about the African experience in the United States. Langston graduated from Lincoln University and worked as a teacher in several American cities and abroad. He became a spokesman for the African-American people in America writing often about their frustrations. He spoke in his poetry about social injustices and frequently used jazz, Black folk rhythms, and humor in his writings. Langston was very concerned about the treatment of African-Americans in the United States. His death in 1967 brought sadness to many people all over the world. (Langston Hughes, American Poet by Alice Walker)
James Weldon Johnson was an African-American author, lawyer, and songwriter. He was born in Jacksonville, Florida in 1871. As a child he loved books and music. He was educated in the universities of Atlanta and Columbia, Georgia. He became the principal of a school for African-American children and started the first Negro daily newspaper in the United States. He wrote the Black National Anthem, "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing" with the help of his brother, Rosamund Johnson. (James Weldon Johnson by Ophelia Settle Egypt and "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing" by James Weldon Johnson)
Mae C. Jemison was born in Decatur, Alabama in 1956. She was raised in Chicago. As a child, Mae spent many hours at the library reading books on animals that are extinct and astronomy. She is a licensed physician and speaks Swahili, Japanese, and Russian. She holds a degree in chemical engineering and Afro-American Studies. She joined NASA in 1986 and six years later became the first African-American women to travel into space. She encourages women and minorities to pursue careers in science. (Black Eagles by Jim Haskins)
Martin Luther King believed that all people were equal. He was born in Atlanta, Georgia on January 15, 1929. When he was not allowed to play with some white friends because he was Black, Martin believed that people should not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their characters. He helped to organize a boycott against the Montgomery-Alabama Bus Company and won the fight. He felt that peace could only be accomplished through non-violent efforts. He preached a message of love and he held on to his "dream" of peace and brotherhood amongst all people. Martin Luther King was killed on April 4, 1968, the day after delivering his famous speech; "I Have A Dream". (My Dream of Martin Luther King by Faith Ringgold and Happy Birthday, Martin Luther King by Jean Marzollo)
Susan LaFlesche was born on June 17, 1865 on the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska. Her father was part French and part Omaha. As a child, Susan liked to help with the household chores. She loved to be with her father and to play with her dolls. She built tepees for the doll families using sunflower stalks for poles and old blankets for covers. Her favorite activity was horseback riding. In 1884 she entered Hampton Institute, a Black Institution, which opened in 1868 and began accepting Native American students in 1879. After graduation she attended Women's Medical College in Philadelphia where she graduated in March 1889 as Dr. Susan LaFlesche. She returned to Nebraska where she cared for Indians and non-Indians alike. (Native American Doctor, The Story of Susan LaFlesche Picotte by Jeri Ferris)
Garrett A. Morgan, an African-American inventor, was born in Paris, Tennessee, in 1875. He loved school and attended daily. He became famous when he rescued trapped miners with a gas mask he had invented. Garrett invented the first electric traffic light that controlled traffic in all directions at one time in 1923.
Ellison Onizuka was born in Keopu, Hawaii in 1946. As a child he liked to gaze at the stars through a telescope. He dreamt of traveling in outer space. He attended the University of Colorado where he studied aerospace engineering. He later became an Air Force test pilot. In 1978 he joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He made his first space flight on the shuttle Discovery in 1985, becoming the first Japanese-American to fly in space. He died when the space shuttle Challenger exploded within seventy-three seconds of takeoff on January 28, 1996. A museum has been dedicated to his honor in Hawaii. (Japanese Americans by Cobblestone)
Rosa Parks was an African-American seamstress in Alabama during the days leading up to the Civil Rights Movement. Born in Tuskegee, Alabama in l9l3, she lived with her mother who taught her self-respect and a respect for others. African-Americans were not treated fairly in those days and this bothered Rosa. Rosa was propelled into the public eye when she refused to give her seat on a bus to a white passenger. She was arrested. Her arrest led to the Montgomery Bus boycott led by Dr. Martin Luther King. The Bus Company lost so much money when African-Americans and their supporters refused to ride the bus for nearly a year, that they changed their policy allowing African-Americans to sit anywhere they wanted on the bus. What a victory for African-Americans and all minority people! (I Am Rosa Parks by Rosa Parks with Jim Haskins)
Squanto was a member of the Wampanoag tribe in what is now Massachusetts. He lived during the time of the early white settlers. He proved to be a valuable friend when he helped the Pilgrims at Plymouth colony survive starvation by teaching them to fish and plant corn. He acted as an interpreter at the signing of the Treaty of Plymouth that was signed in 1621. (Squanto and the First Thanksgiving by Teresa Celsi)
Mother Teresa, an Albanian nun, was born on August 26, 1910 in the city of Prizren. She was baptized as Gonxha (Gohn-ja) Agnes. She became known as the "Saint of Calcutta", the nun who cared for the starving, the homeless and who nursed the sick and dying. Her philosophy to help one person at a time ¾ the person closest to her ¾ helped her to make a difference for the "Poorest of the Poor". She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. She died in l997. (Women of our Time: Mother Teresa: Sister to the Poor by Patricia Reilly Giff)
Tiger Woods was born on December 30, 1975 in Orange County, California, of African-Asian heritage. While still confined to the high chair, he became mesmerized with the swing of the golf club in his father's hand. By eleven months of age, Tiger was hitting balls into the net with his putter. He had absorbed through observation the basics of good golf and could imitate his father perfectly. Tiger went on to win the Master's tournament in 1997. (Tiger Woods by Nicholas Edwards)
Malcolm X was born as Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska on May 19, 1925. He faced many tragedies in his early life. His father was a preacher who spoke out against the mistreatment of Blacks. Malcolm's father was killed because of his protest. Malcolm joined the Black Muslims religious group after having served time in prison. He changed his name from Malcolm Little to Malcolm X, a radical group who hated all white people. Later, he joined the traditional Muslims and they changed his name to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz. Malcolm wanted his people to be treated with respect. At the time of his death in 1965, Malcolm was preaching a message of brotherhood and love. (Malcolm X and Black Pride by Robert Cwiklik)
Kristi Yamaguchi (Yah-mah-goo-chee), a Japanese-American Olympic skating champion, was born in California in 1971. Her foot was so badly twisted that she had to undergo extensive physical therapy. She wore corrective shoes and a leg brace that helped to correct the problem. At the age of six, she began ice-skating. Her parents had experienced the detention camps established by the United States government during World War II as a means of controlling any possible subversive actions of Japanese-Americans. They wanted their daughter's life to be better than their own. Kristi won a gold medal at the U.S. National Figure Skating Championships in 1992. She competed against Japanese Midori Ito in the 1992 Olympic Games. She brought home the gold medal for her country and for all Japanese-Americans. (Japanese Americans by Cobblestone)
Roosevelt Zanders, an African-American businessman, was born in Youngstown, Ohio. As a child he liked to shoot marbles. He won the marble shooting championship for the state of Georgia. He served as a Captain in the army while serving in Alaska. In 1946 he began a car service for the elite in New York. Presidents, movie stars used his service, and Queens but Roosevelt Zanders showed no one any preferential treatment.
- To define the word "diversity"
- To appreciate that people are different in a variety of ways To create a comparison chart
- Chart paper cut in the outline of the human body
- Drawing paper
- Invite the children to tell you what they know about "diversity".
- Display the book: Being with You This Way
- Let the children predict what the book will be about.
- Read the story to the children.
- Write the word "Diversity" across the top of the chart paper and let the children tell you what they now know about diversity. Record their responses.
|Activity:||Allow the children to draw their self-portraits. Create a frame for the children's pictures. Have the children dictate a sentence about themselves. Post the children's pictures and sentence caption on a bulletin board in the classroom. This board can be extended by adding additional information about the children during the course of the year. It can also be used as a review of the similarities and differences that exist within your classroom.|
- To introduce the children to Arthur Ashe
- To appreciate the special relationship which exist between parent & child
- To illustrate and write about a favorite sport
- Daddy and Me by Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe
- Arthur Ashe and His Match with History by Robert Quackenbush
|Procedure:||Read the information about Arthur Ashe included in this unit to the children. Ask the children the following questions:|
Introduce the book, Daddy and Me. Tell the children that the man pictured on cover is Arthur Ashe. Allow volunteers to predict whom the child might be and what they think the story will be about. Read the story, Daddy & Me, to the children. Allow the children to discuss any special relationships they may have with a parent, relative, or friend.
- Where was Arthur Ashe born?
- To what ethnic group did he belong?
- Why was Arthur lonely?
- What sport did he like to play as a child?
- What important thing did Arthur do for his people?
- What made Arthur Ashe sick?
Journal Writing: Begin a journal, entitled "I'm Me from A to Z". Let the children draw pictures in their journals about a special relationship they have with someone and dictate a sentence about the picture.
- To teach the children basic vocabulary related to tennis
- To teach the children to play table tennis
- Tennis sets
- Chart paper or chalkboard
- Markers or chalk
Tennis: a game played with rackets and balls by two or four people on a hard smooth surface. Singles: two players. Doubles: four players Service: to strike the ball across the net to the opponent's side. Server: The player who initiates the play for each point. Receiver: The person who receives the ball. Fault: when the server strikes the net with the ball or hits the ball off the table while serving.
Writing Center: Let the children draw and write about their favorite sport.
- List the above words on the chalkboard or on chart paper, Read the word and its meaning as you write.
- To begin the game, place two tables together and erect a divider between the two tables.
- Start with singles. Define singles for the children and choose a child to play with you as you demonstrate the game.
- Demonstrate to the children how to "serve" the ball. (Remember the ball must be struck before it makes contact with the table. For the young child, you may which to modify this rule, and let them bounce the ball on the table before serving.)
- Show the children what constitutes a "fault".
- Each server is permitted two tries for each service.
- Choose a child to be the "receiver". Explain what the receiver does.
- Practice a few rounds with the receiver.
- Six points wins the game.
- Let the children practice playing table tennis. (You may which to toss a coin to see who will go first and who will serve.)
- To introduce Ruby Bridges
- To share feelings about the first day of school
- Book: RubyBridges by Robert Coles
- Children's Journals: I'm Me from A to Z
|Procedure:||Read the section about Ruby Bridges as found in this unit. Ask the children the following questions:|
- Who was Ruby Bridges?
- To what ethnic group did she belong?
- Where did she go to school?
- What was school like for Ruby when she was 6?
- How did the people treat Ruby?
- Why did Ruby pray?
- Display the book, Ruby Bridges, to the children.
- Allow time for the children to discuss the cover and to predict what the story will be about.
- Read the story to the children.
- Allow the children to share their feelings about the first day of school.
- Venn Diagram: Let the children compare and contrast their school experiences with that of Ruby Bridges using a Venn diagram.
|Note:||This bibliography is alphabetized, not by author, but by the person being studied.|
Moutoussamy-Ashe, Jeanne. Daddy and Me. New York: Random House, Inc., 1993. A photo story of Arthur Ashe and his daughter Camera. The text and photographs provide insight into the relationship of tennis great Arthur Ashe and his six-year old daughter, Camera, showing how young children and families deal with AIDS.
Quackenbush, Robert. Arthur Ashe and His Match with History. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994. This book tells the story of tennis great Arthur Ashe who became the first African-American male athlete to break down the barriers of tennis. Arthur Ashe helped the Civil Rights movement make significant progress when he added his fame to its struggle. Heart problems and later the development of AIDS caused the tennis star to retire from the sport he loved so much.
Coles, Robert. Ruby Bridges. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1995. For months Ruby Bridges must confront the hostility of white persons when she becomes the first African-American child to integrate Frantz Elementary School in New Orleans in 1960.
Carson, Ben. Ben Carson. Grand Rapids: Michigan, Zondervan Publishing House, 1990. The autobiography of the upward climb of the eight-year-old African-American "class dummy" to one of America's most loved and highly respected pediatric neurosurgeon.
St. John, Jetty. Native American Scientists. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996 contains biographical information on several Native American scientists.
Adler, David A. A Picture Book of Amelia Earhart. New York: Holiday House, 1998. This is a picture book story on the life of Amelia Earhart, who became the first woman to fly across the Atlanfic Ocean. Amelia had many other flying adventures that ended when she disappeared mysteriously over the Pacific Ocean in 1937.
St. John, Jetty. Hispanic Scientists. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 1996. This book contains the biographical information on six Hispanic scientists.
Walker, Alice. Langston Hughes, American Poet. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1974. This book tells the story of one of America's most beloved African-American poets and spokesman.
Egypt, Ophelia Settle. James Weldon Johnson. New York: Cromwell, 1974. Brief biography of the turn-of-the century African-American author, educator, lawyer, and diplomat who started the first Negro daily newspaper in the United States and who wrote the Black National Anthem, "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing".
Johnson, James Weldon. Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1995. The Black National Anthem, "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing", is beautifully illustrated by Jan Spivey Gilchrist with bold, descriptive pictures.
Haskins, Jim. Black Eagles. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1995. This book traces the advancement of African-Americans in the field of aviation and tells the struggles they surmounted to overcome the racism that threatened to bar them from this field.
Ringgold, Faith. My Dream of Martin Luther King. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1995. A pictorial account of the life of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the history of the Civil Rights Movement.
Marzollo, Jean. Happy Birthday, Martin Luther King. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1993. This book is a great introduction to the life of the great Civil Rights leader.
Ferris, Jeri. Native American Doctor: The Story of Susan LaFlesche Picotte. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1991 is the story of an Omaha Indian who went on to becomes a physician in the late 1800.
Dadey, Debbie. Shooting Star, Annie Oakley the Legend. New York: Walker and Co., 1997. This book is depicts the story of the legend Annie Oakley through beautiful pictures and text.
Parks, Rosa. I Am Rosa Parks. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers, 1997. This autobiography tells of the childhood and life of the courageous woman who helped to start the Civil Rights Movement by refusing to surrender her seat on a bus to a white passenger.
Celsi, Teresa. Squanto and the First Thanksgiving. Milwaukee: Raintree Publishers, 1989. This book tells the story of Squanto who befriended the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony and helped them to survive by teaching them to plant corn and fish.
Giff, Patricia Reilly. Women of Our Time: Mother Teresa: Sister to the Poor. New York: Puffin Books, 1986 Tells the story of the compassion and service offered to the "Poorest of the Poor"in Calcutta by a self-less nun, Mother Teresa
Edwards, Nicholas. Tiger Woods. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1997. Tiger showed an interest in golf at a very young age. His father encouraged and cultivated that interest to produce one of the most dominant figures in the world of golf.
Cwiklik, Robert. Malcolm X and Black Pride. Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1991. This book chronicles the unhappy childhood of Malcolm Little to his untimely death.
Cobblestone. Japanese Americans. New Hampshire: Ed Press, 1996. This history magazine for young people gives a synopsis of the Japanese experience in the United States.
Felder, Cain Hope. Stony the Road We Trod. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991, An examination of the liberating aspects of Scripture with special sensitivity to race, class, and gender.
Augenbraum, Harold & Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. The Latino Reader: New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997, An anthology tracing Latino literature from its conception in the mid-sixteenth century to the present day.
Woodson, Carter G. The Mis-Education of the Negro. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, Inc., 1990. An examination of the educational system and how it controls those whose thinking comes under its dictates. A very thought provoking literary piece.
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