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Immigration and American Life Graphing Immigration Data

Mary Elizabeth Jones

Contents of Curriculum Unit 99.03.04:

To Guide Entry

The focus of this unit will be the teaching of graphing using immigration data. Africans, Caribbean, Asian and Puerto Ricans have been identified as the target groups. Students are free to choose any time periods or the teacher may assign periods.

____ This unit will only include Caribbean nations that are inhabited primarily by people classified as Black. This will exclude Cuba, Mexico and Central America. Puerto Rico will be discussed elsewhere in the unit. The Caribbean is made up of many different peoples. It is comprised of people who speak different languages and are influenced by many different nations, most of them European.

Since this unit is being written primarily to be taught to a class of students of color, these are the types of groups I have chosen. It should be noted that Puerto Ricans are not immigrants to this country, but they will be included in this unit because of the language barrier they come to this country with and also because approximately 50% of my class is Puerto Rican.

____ Objectives:

1) To learn to present data graphically
2) To understand and interpret visual data

3) To improve research skills

4) To acquire a better understanding of the make-up of America.

This unit is being written to be taught to an inner city sixth grade class of student

of color. It is meant to be taught over a marking period. The unit will open with a lesson on how to construct graphs. Three lessons discussing this subject will be included in the unit. The three lessons will cover the construction of bar, line and circle graphs. ____ Students will be required to use research techniques to obtain immigration data on the selected group. Upon successful completion of the unit, students should be able to extract information from tables and raw data to construct graphs (line, bar and circle) to present, analyze, compare and explain immigration data.

____ Excellence in statistical graphics (Tufte) consists of complex ideas communicated with clarity, precision, and efficiency. Graphical displays should

show the data
induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than about methodology, graphic design, the technology of graphic production or anything else
avoid distorting what the data have to say
present many numbers in a small space
make large data sets coherent
encourage the eye to compare different pieces of data
reveal the data at several levels of detail
serve a reasonable clear purpose: descriptive, exploration, tabulation or decoration
be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
Students will be required to research the following areas and construct graphs to depict the following data:

____________Trends in Employment
____________Percent of immigrants who found employment
____________Kinds of assistance offered each group
____ Students will also use this data to chart comparisons among groups. Students will present data to show the percent of immigrants educated initially in their native tongue. Upon arrival in America, did some of group of immigrants require more assistance than other groups in order to get established?

____ In addition to learning ways to use charts, tables and graphs to present data more clearly and concisely, students will learn that graphs can also be used to distort information. This should be taken into account when using data from graphs. Distortion can occur when intervals are too large or small or when data are not compatible.

____ For students who choose to study African immigrants, data from country of origin can be graphed. Since Africans originally came to this country as slaves, students might find it interesting to graph a time period during slavery and a time period after slavery and make a comparison of the graphs. References such as the Population Reference Bureau and the US Census Bureau would be very useful for obtaining information on country of origin, sex and trends in employment.

____ Students will learn from their research that the coming of minorities to America presented many problems. They were unwelcome for various reasons. The biggest reason seemed to be the idea that immigrants were allegedly inferior; had ideas that did not agree with the American ideas, and were supposedly not fit to serve in government.

____ Before the 20th Century, immigration to America was virtually unlimited. Between 1860 and 1885 8 million immigrants arrived in America. 9 out of 10 came from Northern and Western Europe. In the latter part of the period, immigrants began to arrive from countries on the Southern and Eastern part of Europe. These groups eventually represented the majority of immigrants. As a result, Congress passed an exclusion law giving it the responsibility of regulating immigration. That responsibility still lies with Congress.

____ A law passed in 1875 brought to an end almost 100 years of open borders. The first racial law, The Chinese Exclusion Act was enacted in May 1882 to bar Chinese laborers. On the Western part of the country the concern was also with the influx of Japanese immigrants who were forbidden to buy or lease land in California and Texas. In later years they were excluded by law from entry as immigrants.

Asian People, (Japanese and Chinese) who desired to immigrate to America during the middle of the 19th century received a mixed reception. The Chinese (Herendeen) were at first welcomed as unskilled laborers. Their services were needed and welcomed. As their numbers grew, however, they were perceived as a threat to native labor; as a result of this feeling racist sentiment increased. Chinese were subjected to various discriminatory laws including legislation designed to harass them.

____ The Japanese (Palmer& Daniels) immigrants who came after the Chinese did not fare much better than the Chinese. Despite the fact that they represented a very small percent of the total population, their presence generated intense hostility. In 1908 The San Francisco Board of Education attempted to place all Japanese children, native and foreign born, in a segregated Oriental school in Chinatown. A protest from the Japanese ambassador led the school board to rescind the order. However, a Gentleman's Agreement obtained by President Theodore Roosevelt caused Japan to pledge that it would halt further immigration of its citizens to the U.S.

____ African People who came to this country as slaves did not enjoy any of the benefits or privileges of an American citizen. Those who came later (after slavery was abolished) were faced with discriminatory legislation, especially Jim Crow segregation laws. Factors such as their language, religion and color all contributed to the formation of laws that restricted their conduct and placed them in a subordinate position. This is to say that the subservient status of Blacks continued long after slavery had been abolished.

____ Caribbean People who came to America as free men fared better than slaves but they did not fare much better. Because of the size and makeup of the Caribbean it is necessary to define the area we will focus on in this unit. We will focus on nations that are primarily inhabited by people classified as Black. The Caribbean is made up of people with many different ancestries. Most of the islands were controlled or influenced by various European nations. As free immigrants they did not do nearly as well as whites. They were subjected to the same discrimination as Black people from Africa. Statistical data can be found to show that as a group, Blacks in America have not done as well in most aspects of life as their white counterparts.

____ Puerto Rican People who migrated to America face some if not all of the problems as Blacks. They are considered non-white. They also face a language barrier. As American citizens they have not been allowed to participate fully in the American way of life. They are less educated and are among the poorest of all Hispanic immigrants.

____ ____`

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Immigrant population is neither randomly nor uniformly spread throughout the United States. According to INS statistics, 38 percent of all legal immigrants reside in California. In distant second place is New York with 13 percent. Third place is Texas with 9 percent. Florida (8%), Illinois (4.5%) and New Jersey (4.2%) follow these tree states. Just 6 states are home to 77 percent of the legal immigration population.

Contemporary trends are reinforcing these patterns of concentration. Map 1.1(Exhibit 7) shows the intended state of residence of the 2.4 million immigrants legally admitted in 1993, 1994 and 1995. The darkly shaded states were the most popular with the immigrants. Of those admitted 26 percent intended to make their home in California, 17 percent in New York, and 7.5 percent in Florida. Texas, Illinois and New Jersey ranked 4th, 5th and 6th as states of choice.


Puerto Rican

Population: According to the Population Bulletin, early in the 21st century, Hispanic Americans will become the largest U.S. ethnic minority. 2050 project the Hispanic or Latino population projected to number around 100 million and constitute 25% of the U.S. population, up from 11% in 1996. Statistical data will be provided at the end of the unit, which will include data only for Puerto Ricans. This Bulletin looks at three aspects of the U.S. Hispanic population:

1) there growing numbers
2) their increasing diversity
3) their relative well-being
Future levels of Hispanic immigration will depend on U.S. policies, and other factors, but immigration is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. Fertility will likely contribute most future population growth.

Puerto Ricans will account for 10% of the Hispanic population in the 21st century. Although Hispanic population is growing faster than the Black population; the number of Hispanics will not surpass the number of Blacks in the U.S. for another decade. By 2020, Hispanics will outnumber Blacks by 7 million, according to The Official guide to Race and Ethnic Diversity.

Sixteen percent of children under age 5 are Hispanic, versus 4 percent of people 85 and older. Hispanics account for a much larger share of children and young adults than of older people. Sixty-nine percent of Puerto Ricans live in the Northeast.

Labor Force: Two out of three Hispanics aged 16 and older are in the labor force, including 79 percent of Hispanic men and 53 percent of Hispanic women. Forty seven percent of Hispanic households have two or more earners slightly greater than the 45 percent of all U.S. households with two wage earners.

Only 14 percent of Hispanics are employed in managerial or professional specialty occupations. Twenty-three percent of Hispanics are operators, /fabricators or laborers. Hispanics account for 9 percent of employed Americans. Hispanics will account for 11 percent of the labor force in 2005.

Education: Hispanics lag behind the total population in educational attainment. This is due in part to the fact that many are immigrants who came to the U.S. ad adults with few years of schooling. In 1994 only 53 percent of Hispanics had a high school diploma. Only 9 percent had a college degree versus 22 percent of the total population.

Hispanics earned over 45,000 bachelor's degrees in 1992 - 93. That is 4 percent of all bachelor's degrees awarded that year. This is far below the Hispanic share of the population. Hispanics earned 11 percent of bachelor's degrees in foreign language and literature in 1992 - 1993. At the first-professional degree level, they earned 6 percent of degrees in podiatry.

Income: The median income of Hispanic households fell by 7.5 percent between 1990 and 1994 to $23,421. The median income for Puerto Ricans was the lowest of all Hispanics at $18,541. In 1994, Hispanic men who worked fill-time had a median income of $20,525 and women who worked full-time had a median income of $18,418.

Hispanic men and women earn less than the average worker does because many Hispanics are recent immigrants with low educational levels. Hispanic and black families are about equally likely to be poor, but Hispanic married couples have a much higher poverty rate (20 %) than do Black couples (9%).

Asian: (Japanese and Chinese)
Population: According to Professor Millis, The Japanese Problem in the United States, there were only 55 Japanese in this country in 1870. By 1910 according to The U.S. Census there were 72,157 Japanese in the U.S. The 1990 Census of population reported 847,562 Japanese and 1,645,472 Chinese living in America.

The Asian-American population is projected to grow from about 10 million in 1996 to nearly 20 million by 2020 when Asian will account for 6 percent of the total U.S. population. The majority of Asians live in the West, where they account for nearly 10 percent of the population. California is home to 39 percent of the nation's Asian population. Los Angeles has more Asians than any other metropolitan area.

Driving much of this growth is immigration. The Asian world region accounted for 45 percent of all immigrants to the U.S. in 1994, with the largest numbers coming from China, the Philippines and Vietnam. Fully 63 percent of Asian Americans are foreign born, according the 1990 census.
Most Asian Americans speak English very well. Only 38 percent of that aged 5 or older do not speak English fluently. But among those aged 65 or older, more than half do not speak English very well.

Nearly 153,000 babies were born to Asian-American mothers in 1993, or just under 4 percent of all babies born that year. This proportion should rise to nearly 7 percent by 2020. In 1993, Asians accounted for fully 67 percent of all births in Hawaii and 10 percent of births in California.

Labor Force: More than 3.5 million Asians were in the civilian labor force in 1994, or 64 percent of all Asians Americans aged 16 or older. According to The Official Guide to Race & Ethnic Diversity 53 percent of all Asians households have at least two earners.

This compares with 45 percent of total households and is the highest proportion among all racial groups. The number of workers who are Asian or "other" race (primarily Native American) will grow by 39 percent between 1994 and 2005, this according to projections by The Bureau of Labor Statistics.

One-third of employed Asian men and women are in managerial or professional specialty occupations. This compares with 27 percent of men and 29 percent of women in the nation as a whole. Asians account for 2.8 percent of the nation's workers, but for 3.4 percent of managers and professionals.

Education: Asians are much better educated than the population as a whole according to Russell. As of 1994, 85 percent of all Asians were high school graduates, versus 81 percent of the total population. Fully 41 percent of Asians were college graduates, much higher than the 22 percent of the total population that have a bachelor's degree.

____ Not only are Asians better educated than the average person; they are more likely to be enrolled in school. Overall, 37 percent of Asians aged 3 or older are in school, versus 27 percent of all Americans. Asians account for 5 percent of undergraduate enrollment and nearly 9 percent of enrollment at the first-professional degree level.

More than 51,000 bachelor's degrees were awarded to Asian Americans in 1999-93. Asians earned 11 percent of bachelor's degrees awarded in biological science and engineering. They also earned from 12 to 19 percent of first-professional degrees in the fields of dentistry, medicine, optometry and pharmacy.

Income: The median income of Asian households fell by 7 percent between 1990 and 1994 as the recession of the early 1990s cut into earnings. Despite this decline, Asian median household income was 25 percent greater than the median income of total households in 1994.

Nearly 20 percent of Asian households had incomes of $75,000 or more in 1993. Asian couples had the highest income, with a median of nearly $50,000. More than one in four Asian couples had an income of $75,000 or more. Asian families headed by women without a spouse have a higher median income than those headed by men without a spouse.

Asian men working year-round, full-time earned a median of $32,601 in 1994, up about 6 percent since 1990, after adjusting for inflation. Asian women earned a median income of $24,452, up one percent since 1990. Asian men and women earn slightly more than the average full-time worker does because they are better educated.

Because many Asians are recent immigrants, a relatively large proportion is poor. Forty-one percent of Asian families with a householder who did not graduate from high school are poor. The proportion that is poor falls to 7 percent among those with bachelor's degrees. Twelve percent of Asian married couples are poor, versus just 6 percent of all married couples.

Blacks: (African and Caribbean)

Population: According to The Official Guide to Racial & Ethnic Diversity, the Black population is projected to grow from 34 million in 1996 to more than 45 million by 2020, when Blacks will account for 14 percent of the total U.S. population. Blacks will remain the largest minority in the U.S. for about another 10 years. Sometimes between 2005 and 2010 Hispanics will surpass blacks and become the dominant minority.

Blacks account for a larger share of children and young adults than of older Americans because Black fertility and mortality is greater than that of the white majority population. While only 7.6 percent of all people aged 85 or older are black, 16 percent of children under age 5 are Black.

More than half of Blacks lives in the South, where they account for 19 percent of the population. In Mississippi, 36 percent of the population is Black, as is over 30 percent of the population in Louisiana and South Carolina.

Among metropolitan areas, New York has the largest number of Blacks, with 3.4 million in 1990. Blacks account for 18 percent of the population in the greater New York metropolitan area. Overall, there are 51 metropolitan areas with more than 100,000 blacks. Among them, the Black share of the population is highest in Jackson, Mississippi, at 42.5 percent.

Nearly 659,000 babies were born to Black mothers in 1993, or 16.5 percent of all babies born that year. Sixty-nine percent of all Black babies are born to unmarried mothers, the highest proportion among all racial and ethnic groups. Blacks accounted for 48 percent of all births in Mississippi in 1993 and for at least one-third of births in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland and South Carolina.

Labor Force: Sixty-four percent of Blacks aged 16 or older are in the labor force, including 69 percent of Black men and 60 percent of Black women. Black men are less likely to be in the labor force than men are nationally, who have a labor force participation rate of 75 percent. The labor force participation rate for Black women is close to that of all women.

Only 35 percent of Black households have two or more earners, well below the 45 percent of all U.S. households with two earners. Underlining this lower figure is the fact that married couples head relatively few Black households. Among Black couples, 56 percent are dual earners, slightly greater than the 55 percent of total couples that are dual earners. Fewer than 18 percent of Black couples are traditional-meaning only the husband works. Among all married couples, 22 percent are traditional.

Twenty percent of Blacks are employed in managerial or professional specialty occupations, below the 28 percent of all workers employed in these occupations. Conversely, 22 percent of Blacks are employed in service occupations, compared with 14 percent of all workers. Blacks account for 11 percent of all employed Americans, but for 17 percent of social, recreation, and religious workers and 28 percent of bus drivers. Twenty percent of employed blacks are union members, versus 15 percent of all workers.

Between 1994 and 2005, the number of black workers will grow by 15 percent. Blacks will account for 11 percent of the labor force in 2005.

Education: Seventy percent of Blacks were high school graduates in 1993. While this proportion is about 10 percentage points lower than the share of the total population with a high school diploma, blacks are rapidly gaining on whites.

Over the past few decades, Blacks have made great strides in educational attainment. This is due to a much greater educational level among young Blacks. As recently as 1980, barely half of blacks had graduated from high school. Among Blacks in there 20's and 30's, 83 percent are high school graduates.

Twelve percent of Blacks had a bachelor's degree in 1993, compared with 22 percent of the total population. Among black families with children aged 18 to 24, 28 percent have a child in college full-time. This rises t 56 percent among Black families with incomes of $75,000 or more. Over 1.5 million Blacks were in college in 1993, 43 percent of them full-time students at four-year schools.

Blacks earned 7 percent of bachelor's degrees, 5 percent of master's degrees and 3 percent of doctorates awarded in 1992-93. Blacks earned 8 percent of first-professional degrees awarded in theology and 9 percent of those awarded in podiatry in 1992-93.

Income: The median income for Blacks fell by 0.7 percent between 1990 and 1994, to $21,027, after adjusting fir inflation. All racial and ethnic groups lost ground during those years, but the decline for Black households were smaller than for any other group.

While Black household income grew relative to the income of others racial and ethnic groups, it stood at just 65 percent of the median for all households in 1994. The fact that married couples-typically the most affluent household types-are just 33 percent of all Black households accounts in a large part for the lower incomes of Blacks. Black married couples had a median income of $40,432 in 1994. While Black female-headed families had a median income of only $14,560.

For Black men and women, their income peaks between ages 45 and 54. Black men aged 45 to 54 who worked full-time had a median income of $31,310 in 1994, while Black women in this age group who work full-time had a median income of $23,233. The earnings of blacks rise steadily with education. Black men with at least a bachelor's degree who work full-time had a median income of $36,072; similarly educated black women earned $31,890.

Black families are more likely to be poor than the average American family, but Black poverty rates dropped sharply between 1990 and 1994. Overall, 31 percent of Blacks were poor in 1994; 44 percent among Blacks under age 18.

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Lesson Plan 1

Objective: To teach students the steps necessary to construct graphs (bar, line and


1) Teacher will write the objective for the day on the board.
2) Teacher will distribute and review the hand out on how to construct a graph.
NOTE: Hand out will be included in the unit. (Exhibits 1 - 6)

3) Students will be lead in a discussion of how to label graphs.
4) Students will review data from the handout and be lead in a discussion of a graph generated from the data.
5) Using data from the handout the teacher will model on the board the construction of a graph. (Type is teachers' choice).
Homework: Students will be required to use data from a table to construct a graph.

To cover this objective it could take three days: especially if students have very little to no prior knowledge. On day 2 students will learn to choose a type of graph based on the data being presented. At the end of day 3 students should have a basic understanding of interval, labels and titles of a graph.


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Lesson Plan 2


1) To prepare a table representing the immigrant population of the six states most populated by immigrants (California, New York, Texas, Florida, Illinois and New Jersey).
2) To prepare a bar graph of this data.

1) Students are given a copy of the U.S. map (exhibit 7).
2) Students are instructed on how to research information.
3) Teacher will take students to the library for research. Students should be encouraged to use the Internet as well as reference books.
4) Teacher will meet with students (during class time) individually to review their progress and answer questions.
5) Students will present their table to teacher for approval.
6) Students will complete their graph.
Note to teacher: This assignment can be completed individually or in pairs. The lesson should be completed in 3-4 day. Depending on the ability of the students, the lesson can be extended by having students use Excel or some other program to produce their chart and graph on a computer. Teachers can refer to the Reference materials included in the unit for places to obtain this information if it is not available in their school.

Homework: Teacher decides.

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Lesson plan 3


To construct a circle graph.

compass, ruler, and calculator.

1) Teacher will distribute this data to each student. (from 1990 U.S. census)

Race/Ethnic group Population 1990

Puerto Rican 2,727,754

Japanese 847,562

Chinese 1, 645,472

African American 29,986,060

Total U.S. population 248,240,000

2) Calculate the percent (%) of the total population represented by each ethnic group.

3) Use these percentages to construct a circle Graph. Teacher will instruct students that the graph must add up to 100%, therefore, the largest part of the graph will be devoted to "all others".

Homework: Teacher will decide, based on level of students.

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Lesson Plan 4


To construct a line graph using immigration data. Period covered 1994 to 1997.

Graph paper, 2 colored markers.


1) Students will be advised of the target countries (Jamaica and China).
2) Teacher will provide students with the necessary data ( Exhibit 8).
3) Students will be required to obtain information on each group of immigrants, such as employment trends and dominant place of settlement in the U.S.
Homework: Students could complete the research as homework and construct the

Graph in class. Teacher's choice.

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Pastor, Robert A. Editor. Migration and Development in the Caribbean; The Unexplored Connection. 1985. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Special studies of Latin American and the Caribbean. Includes bibliographies and index.

Yetman, Norman R. Majority and Minority: the Dynamics of Racial and EthnicRelations. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1975.

____ A discussion of minorities in the U.S. and race relations.

National Academy Press Immigration Statistics: A Story of Neglect. Washington, D.C. April 1986. Editors: B. Levine, K. Hill and R. Warren.

Presentation of immigration statistics.

Tufte, Edward R. Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphic Press, Cheshire CT, 1982.

Data graphics visually display, measured quantities by means of the combined use of points lines, a coordinate system, numbers, symbols, words shadings and colors.

Jones, Maldwyn Allen. American Immigration. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1969.

____The Chicago history of American civilization. Includes biographical references.

Palmer, Edwin. Asians in the West. Nashville, T. Nelson, 1974.

____Traces the history of Asian immigration to the U.S. Discusses the experiences

____ And problems of various Oriental groups trying to settle in American society.

Swertka, Eve. Make it Graphic! : Drawing graphs for Science and Social Studies Projects. New York: Messner, c1985

____Discusses different kinds of graphs and their uses. Gives instructions for drawing

____Graphs for a variety of school projects.

La Voie, Ronald. New England, 1970 to 1990: A Graphic Presentation of Population Data by State and County. Hartford, Northeast Utilities Service Co. 1976.

____ Graphically presents population data by state and county from 1790 - 1970.

Daniels, Roger. Coming to America. 1990. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, NY.

Traces the history of immigration to America from 1500 to the present. In a narrative the author takes the reader from the first Spanish, French and English immigrant to the Latin American and Asian immigrants of the 20th century.


Duleep, Harriet O. International Migration Review. Sum. 1996 V 30.

____Gives U.S. admission criteria and immigrant earnings profile.

Herendeen, Naomi Carrera. Journey to a New Life. A Chinese Immigration Story. New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn New York. Office of Bilingual Education ,1995.

Del Pinal, Jorge. Generations of Diversity: Latinos in the U.S. Population Bulletin 1997, October v52 n3.

____Compiles data for all Americans and Racial and Ethnic groups.

Hooper, Linda M. The Asian and Pacific Islander Population in the U.S. Current Population Reports, March 1997.

Shaw, Carla Cooper. Taking Multicultural Math Seriously. Perspectives. Social Studies and the Young Learner, 1993, September - October v6 n1.

An article designed to help teachers teach math to a diverse population. Contains sample lessons and ideas of how to plan lessons.
Student Reading List

Dixon, Edward H. The Immigration and Naturalization Service. New York: Chelsea House, c1990.

Surveys the history of immigration and naturalization service and describes its structure, current functions and influences on American society.

Dunworth, John. Millions of People. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965.

____Juvenile literature. Book of illustrations of graphic methods and statistics.

Froman, Robert. A Game of Functions. New York, Crowell 1974.

____A young person's math book. Give directions for a game which demonstrates the

____basic principles of functions and graphs.

Lowenstein, Dyno. Graphs. New York, F. Watts, 1969.

____Demonstrates how to read statistics correctly and how to plan and plot graphs on your own.

Marle, Sandra. Discovering Graph Secrets: Experiments, Puzzles and Games Exploring Graphs. New York, N.Y.: Atheneum Books for Young ReadersC 1997.
Juvenile literature. Contains activities dealing with charts and graphs, showing how to construct them, what can be plotted, and how they illustrate mathematical Concepts.

Catherall, Ed. Investigating Graphs. Hove, Sussex; Wayland, 1982.

____Juvenile literature. Explores graphic methods. Investigates graph types.

Teacher Reading/Reference List

WWW.census.gov. Presentation of current census data

1990 Census of Population. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Commerce, Economic and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census.

Yetman, Norman R. Majority and Minority: the Dynamics of Racial and Ethnic Relations. 3rd Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 1992.

____Discusses minorities in the U.S. and race relations.

Lowenstein, Dyno. Graphs. New York, F. Watts, 1969.

Demonstrates how to read statistics correctly and how to plan and plot graphs on your Own.

Catherall, Ed. Investigating Graphs, Hove, Sussex: Wayland, 1982.

Presents and discuss various graphing methods.

Markle, Sandra. Discovering Graph Secrets: Experiments, Puzzles and Games Exploring Graphs. New York, N.Y. Atheneum books for young readers, c1997.

Juvenile literature. Contains activities dealing with charts and graphs, showing how to construct them, what can be plotted, and how they illustrate mathematical concepts.

Current Population Reports. Various authors. 1997 & 1998. U.S. Department of Commerce. Economic and Statistics Administration.

____Population data including ethnic and racial breakdowns.

Russell, Cheryl. The Official Guide to Racial and Ethnic Diversity. 1996. New Strategist Publications, Ithaca, NY.

____Population and statistical data complied for Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics. An Excellent resource book.


Occupations of Jamican Migrants To North America, 1970-1980
Occupational Group1970-80197019761980

Professional, technical
administration and
Clerical and sales18.90%18.00%19.5% 23.40%
Craftmen and operatives32.90%38.20%34.10%27.00%
Household and service
Total Percent100100100100
Total emigrants241,29819,69216,30817,161
Source: Planning Institute of Jamaica, "Emigration to North America from
Jamaica, "1970-80," special reports, Kingston, 1982.
________________________ ________________

Exhibit 9

Black High School and College Graduates, 1980 to 1993
(percent of blacks aged 25 or older who are high school of college graduates, by sex,1980-93)
High school graduatestotalmenwomen
College graduates
Source: Bureau of the Census. Educational Attainment in the United States:
March 1993 and 1992, Current Population Reports,P20-476, 1994
Exhibit 10
Asians by Age, Ethnicity, and Foreign-Born Status, 1990
(total number of Asians, and number and percent who are foreign born, by age and ethnicity, 1990:0; numbers in thousands
foreign born foreign born
Total number percenttotalnumber percent
Under 510887.347817.5
5 to 91022120.5471122.6
10 to 141074844.640921.5
15 to 191227460451124.8
20 to 241329269.8612033.5
25 to 3434628181.31686035.5
35 to 4431226183.71506140.8
45 to 5416414588.2943840.8
55 to 6412310383.51084440.9
65 to 74877282.874811.3
75 to 84363185.123314.9
85 or older9783.39770.1
18 or older1,2641,02681.270824835
65 or older 13211083.51061817.2
Source: Bureau of the Census. 1990 Population Data.
Exhibit 11

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