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Anatomy of Your Enemy

by
Dana S. Altshuler


Contents of Curriculum Unit 05.02.01:

To Guide Entry


Introduction

The students of Wilbur Cross high school are a diverse group. Student identity ranges from a multitude of cultural backgrounds such as African American, Latino, Jewish, Asian, and Caucasian. These kids come from all over New Haven, offering a variety of perspectives on the socio-economic divide or our city. In my experience, it is this richness in diversity that makes this group of students in particular so amazing. They each carry their life experiences into the classroom.

Likewise, Wilbur Cross high school is made up of students from a variety of academic backgrounds. These kids come from middle schools located throughout the city of New Haven whose learning pedagogy differs from school to school. Students have a range of academic skills. Although this unit is designed for a 9th grade honors class, again in my experience, some of the students in this honors class struggle to read and write on grade level while other students excel in these areas. Regardless of these differences, the atmosphere of the classroom is inviting and safe for each student to share their ideas and perspectives with their classmates.

Anatomy of Your Enemy(1) is a unit that I have created to fulfill the learning needs of these 9th grade honors world history students. In the past my honors students have demonstrated a level of enjoyment and proficiency in discussion-based methods of learning. During the three week time frame allotted for this unit, I will incorporate a variety of opportunities for discussion-based lessons. The main objective for this unit is for students to think conceptually, and to speak and write coherently about social issues. The readings require students to analyze historical texts, class activities encourage student participation, and daily "warm-up/warm-down" writing assignments require reflection and provide a venue to work on writing skills. Additionally, the display of positive interaction and respect amongst the group provides the opportunity to implement cooperative learning methods, which provide students the chance to feel a direct connection in the sharing of information.

In accordance with New Haven Public School standards, throughout the year students begin to recognize themes in history when they are encouraged to gain an appreciation for the impact of cultural interaction. Through the study of human migration, students realize the function of cultural interaction in creating a globally connected world. One of my ongoing classroom objectives is to promote an awareness of the influence that point of view can have when studying world history. Students share diverse perspectives in class discussion and by expressing their own perceptions of history in class writing assignments. The Anatomy of Your Enemy unit is an amalgamation of the many concepts that have been touched upon in previous units and therefore will take place towards the end of the year. From conflict between Catholics and Protestants during the Reformation, class struggles between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, to the construct of race in the United States, students can make cross-cultural connections to the implications of identity in instances of conflict throughout world history. Students will participate in discourse that will allow them to recognize why conflict continues to occur, in order to begin to work towards a more peaceful world.

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Rationale

This unit is designed to encourage students to consider the importance of recognizing the roots of conflict. Conflict is the collision between two or more ideas. This can involve topics as diverse as religion, land and political boundaries, to who has control over the TV remote -me or my brother. At the root of all conflict is the construct of identity. Identity is a concept that classifies people into categories of "otherness". In our society (the United States) there are seven socially and politically relevant categories of identity classification: a person's age, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, class, gender, and mental or physical ability.(2) In American society these classifications determine how a person or a group of people are viewed and contributes in creating a power dynamic between those who are "Insiders" (the dominant identity) versus those who are "Outsiders" (the marginalized identity). To explore the impact of identity in events of human conflict requires an understanding of the historical roots of identity within certain societies. Therefore students will conduct case studies to learn how and where instances of social constructs work to further entrench the dichotomy of "Insider-Outsider" identities within socially produced hierarchies. Through readings, films, art, and music students will participate in discourse that encourages them to make cross-cultural connections between two occurrences of anti-gay discriminatory government policy implemented during times of war: the Holocaust in Nazi Germany and anti-gay policy throughout American society in these Post September 11th years.

The essential question that students will be called upon to consider is: How does identity contribute to instances of conflict? Within the context of this question students will analyze the factors that go into creating conflict in order to spark awareness to issues current to our society. Amongst these factors are: nationalism, propaganda and fear tactics, an ongoing history of discrimination in our society and world, the impact of the media, and the resulting violence that targets marginalized people in society. Further questions that the students will evaluate throughout the unit are: What factors construct the way we perceive identity? What is conflict? Why does conflict occur? How and why do institutions (i.e. government, religions etc…) promote divisions in society between "Insiders and Outsiders"? What is meant by "Insider/Outsider" identity roles? Who assigns "Insider/Outsider" roles? Who are Americas' "Outsiders" and do they change over time? How do these societal divisions lead to discriminatory government policy? How do discriminatory government policies lead to further societal divisions? In what way do these divisions create an atmosphere of fear and violence amongst members of marginalized groups?

The unit discusses the concepts of Nationalism and Discrimination. Nationalism is an ideology that unifies citizens within a nation based on their national and ethnic identity. Often the citizens of a nation share common moral values about how people should think and behave. Within a nation there is a political culture, an amalgamation of values and practices focusing on the relationship between citizens and their government.(3) Throughout history the promotion of nationalism has been a political tactic by governments to unify a nation during times of war or government instability. Nationalism can produce unity in times of desperation but is also capable of fostering Insider/Outsider identity roles, either within a nation or against a rival nation-state. Throughout history one's devotion to nation has lead to conflict. Some examples of nationalism that the students have studied in this 9th grade world history class are the Arab/Israeli conflict and the Northern Ireland conflict.

Discrimination is the behavioral application of prejudice on both the individual and institutional levels.(4) Whether it is a hate crime or discriminatory government policy against an individual or an entire group of people based on their identity, discrimination has always been a cause for conflict. In approaching these complex ideas, the lessons of the unit will allow the students to consider their own identities, their own experiences with discrimination, conflict, and violence. Additionally, I will refer to past examples from history units that we have studied together. By revealing instances of "Insider/Outsider" identity throughout history students can then become historical detectives on a mission to track an understanding of how identity contributes to instances of conflict.

The unit goals are reflective of the overall concepts of the New Haven Public Schools World History curriculum standards. Therefore, the objectives for this unit are for students to make personal connections to global and social issues, recognize trends in history such as the causes for conflict, prejudice, and discrimination, and ultimately, have the incentive to think conceptually, and to speak and write coherently about social issues. In the 9th grade students are to develop analytical thinking skills, writing skills, and recognize patterns in history. Additionally, the Anatomy of Your Enemy unit will be taught in the historical context of a post World War One world. It is essential that students have background knowledge of the world during these years. The following portion of the unit will provide this background knowledge.

How did the Holocaust come about?

In order to begin to understand the Holocaust it is important to evaluate the context in which this event emerged. To begin to grasp how millions of people were killed during the Nazi Regime is overwhelming and hard to imagine. Even more overwhelming is how to approach teaching the Holocaust to our students. I believe that by evaluating the world environment post World War I and more specifically, the case of Germany, we can begin to find some answers. So then let me take you all the way back to the first Great War.

Total war is when a war consumes the entire world. Some characteristics of Total war are the introduction of military technology, involving all regions of the world, impacting soldiers and civilians, influencing government policy, causing changes in economies, debt, destruction, and a legacy that will impact all future generations of the world. World War One had all of these characteristics. The First World War introduced tanks, submarines, planes, machine guns, and poisonous gas. This war was unique, because it was the first truly global war the world had ever seen. As European nations competed to become world super powers much of the fighting took place in those African colonies controlled by warring European nations. During World War One about 30 million people died, of which 20 million were civilians. As nations competed for power governments became focused on winning the war, which can be seen in government policies developed during this time. In the United States, the government limited individual freedoms by implementing the Sedition and Espionage Acts. Because the US was at war with Germany, teaching German in public schools throughout the US became illegal.(5) The war effort was further encouraged by increased military spending on new technologies; this lead to increased debt for the opposing nations during the postwar years. During this time factories in the United States saw an increase in profits as they supplied weapons for both the Allied and the Central powers. The financial cost of the First World War was an estimated 200 million dollars in destruction.

After the war, the United States led the world powers in outlining plans for peace and prevention of future wars. The Versailles Treaty assigned Germany sole responsibility for initiating World War One. As a result, the victorious nations repossessed German colonies and protectorates in Africa and in the Pacific. Additionally, the iron rich region of Alsace Lorraine was given to France. This treaty also established a War Guilt clause that required Germany to pay reparations to European nations in the years after the war. In addition to these costs, Germany had lost two million young men to the war, and this lack of manpower made it difficult to bring life back into German factories in the post war years.(6)

After the war Europe was plagued with war debt and destruction. Many nations such as Germany attempted to establish democratic governments. The new German government was called the Weimar Republic. The Republic did not have much citizen support and many disagreed with the new liberal government for the signing the Treaty of Versailles, because it had placed Germany as the instigator of World War One.

During the 1920s, American investors aided in rebuilding European nations. By supplying loans investors contributed to rebuilding European industries. These American loans created an economic dependency between European nations and the United States. This dependency was demonstrated in the Dawes Plan, where Germany received 20 million dollars from US investors in order to rebuild their economy. When the United States stock market crashed in 1929 the United States entered a time of economic depression; caused by overproduction, unemployment, and an unequal distribution of wealth. In reaction to the crash of 1929, American investors turned to European nations in order to collect on their post World War One loans. This collection of loans forced European nations into a time of debt. European nations followed the US into a Global Depression.(7) So here we are, in post WWI Germany with two million young men dead, inflation, war debt and reparations, and the United States collecting on their loans.

Germany was ripe for the powerful voice of a nationalistic leader such as Hitler. By way of democratic election, in 1933, Hitler came into power of Germany. His regime would replace the Weimar Republic and as early as 1933 would begin to strike away at democratic freedoms of religion, speech, and the press. It was in this context that the Holocaust occurred. It is important to recognize that before Hitler came into power there was rampant anti-Semitism (the hatred of Jews) and anti-Liberalism (opposition to those who supported the Weimar Republic) within the National Socialist German Workers Party: (Nazi). Followers of this party believed that people of Aryan descent represented a superior race of people. A commonly held belief was that this superior group of Aryans should control all of Germany.(8) Many German and Nazi scholars began to apply the American science of Eugenics to their political ideologies. Eugenics means the science of race, and it promoted the idea that one race is superior to other races of people.(9) It is important for students to be informed that in the early part of the 20th century many American scientists and scholars developed the Eugenics movement, which Adolf Hitler (the future Furher of Germany) makes reference to in his book, Mein Kampf. Amongst the first of the persecuted minority groups targeted by this Nazi Regime as enemies of the state were "Outsiders," such as: the disabled, political opponents, and homosexuals.

Unknown to most people are the implications that the rise of the Nazi Regime had on the homosexual community in Germany. In Richard Plant's book, The Pink Triangle, the author writes that the majority of gay inmates were located at Buchenwald, a concentration camp in Germany. Under the Weimar Republic of the 1920s, Berlin was known for its openness towards sexual minorities. In 1914, there were said to be forty gay bars in the city of Berlin. The "liberal" Weimar Republic of the1920s allowed for a number of homosexual political associations to be established in Breslau, Frankfurt and many other large German cities. Throughout the 1930s, Nazi laws were passed to limit the freedoms of persecuted minorities. One example of this strategy can be the Nuremburg laws of 1935 that took citizenship away from German Jews. Likewise, during this time there were constant Nazi raids on the gay sections of cities such as Berlin. Nazi laws banned homosexual meeting places and eventually began to arrest and place homosexuals in concentration camps.

Most concentration camps were established after 1939. Prior to concentration camps, there were laws established to limit the freedoms of the previously cited persecuted minorities. These homosexuals were arrested under Paragraph 175 which states "a male who indulges in criminally indecent activities with another male or who allows himself to participate in such activities will be punished with jail". Although Paragraph 175 did not ban sexual acts between two women, SS officers raided lesbian bars and arrested these women for violation of the Nazi judicial code. These lesbians became prisoners. In 1975, Ina Kukuk published a series of accounts documenting the treatment of lesbian prisoners during the Holocaust. In these accounts lesbian Holocaust survivors spoke of the Gestapos' use of sexual violence in cellblocks. It is said that French and Russian POWs were promised a bottle of schnapps in reward for each woman they penetrated upon entering the camps, homosexual inmates were greeted with beatings and forced to shave all the hair off of their bodies. Once situated in camp life homosexuals were separated from all other groups of inmates and considered by the SS soldiers (Nazi Soldiers who worked in the camps) to be the lowest category of prisoners. Homosexuals were placed in special labor camps and many became objects for medical experimentation.(10)

The Holocaust Equation: Then and Now

So now you are wondering where the connection to the Holocaust is. The connection is based upon an equation that I created to use with my students: "The Holocaust Equation." Although the equation refers directly to the Holocaust this should not imply that it refers to the isolated incident known as the Holocaust. Though the "final solution" for the Holocaust resulted in genocide, the equation's result is not always one of genocide. Genocide is the deliberate, systematic policy to eliminate an entire racial, political, or cultural group of people.(11) Nonetheless, there are numerous examples of genocide throughout the 20th century that confirm the Holocaust Equation. Although each case, whether it is the Armenian genocide or the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda, has unique qualities such as the motivations of murdering or different regimes that perpetrate them, each instance of genocide does share some basic factors.(12) The equation suggests that in times of national instability the government will use tactics of nationalism to unify and strengthen the nation. The result is an atmosphere that thrives off of the persecution of minority groups. To introduce students to the equation I write it on the whiteboard: The Holocaust Equation is Government instability + Nationalism = Persecuted Minority groups (Outsiders). While evaluating each piece of the equation I ask students to make connections to instances in history where the Holocaust Equation has occurred. During this discussion I record student ideas on the white board. Usually the students offer examples that we have already studied such as the Armenian Genocide, Japanese Internment camps, or the Pogroms in Russia. I tell the students that the term genocide did not exist prior to the specific case of the Holocaust. Raphael Lemkin, a Polish lawyer recognized that there was not proficient language for discourse about these incidences. He believed that this lack of discourse would lead to the reoccurrence of acts of mass murder. He thought creating the term "genocide" would allow members of the global community to begin implementing laws of prevention. In 1943, Lemkin chose the term "genocide" from the Greek prefix genos meaning race and the Latin suffix cide meaning killing. It was Lemkin's term and definition that the United Nations used in its Genocide Convention of 1948. (13)

Is the Holocaust Equation an isolated incident?

If we take a closer look at American history it is possible that the US government has implemented tactics of nationalism during times of national instability and desperation. Perhaps you can recall the Japanese Internment Camps during WWII or the Black Listing during the Cold War. Now, I encourage you to take an even closer look and to recognize the presence of persecuted minority groups in America over the past four years since the September 11th attacks. A result of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon has been the implementation of government policies that limit democratic freedoms protected by the Bill of Rights. With your students you can discuss what is meant by democratic freedoms. Some discussion questions might be: What freedoms are protected in our Constitution? Should the government have the power to limit these freedoms? In what situation would it be justified for the government to suspend someone's civil rights? Has there ever been a group of people whose rights were not protected? Are there groups of people in America whose rights are currently not protected? This discussion can lead to a dialogue about the government's reaction to the September 11th terrorist attacks which resulted in the implementation of the Patriot Act in 2001.

The Patriot Act passed by Congress in 2001 was designed with the purpose of "uniting and strengthening America by providing appropriate tools required to intercept and obstruct terrorism."(14) The atmosphere of post September 11th America has been one of a suffering economy, and a feeling of insecurity and fear among many American citizens. Additionally, it is a time of war. In March 2003 the United States declared war on Iraq. Many American citizens have family and friends fighting in America's War on Terrorism. The year is 2005 and a total of 1744American soldiers have lost their life for the War on Terrorism (as I write the number is growing).(15) The US military presence has sparked ongoing violence and civil war in Iraq, creating an atmosphere of malnutrition and illness. The result is an estimated 30,000 Iraqi deaths; it is the civilian population that has been mostly effected.(16)

As the US wages war in the age of global communications the government has placed restrictions on the freedom of the press. These restrictions influence the news coverage that informs American citizens about the events of the war.(17) Throughout world history the media has rallied citizen support for revolution and waging war. You can have students refer to their previous knowledge base by talking about other examples in history involving the power of the media. For example, it was the pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, "Common Sense" that sparked the American Revolution. It was "yellow" journalism that encouraged Americans to support the Spanish American War. In World War II it was the emotional "fireside" chats of FDR that motivated that American public to support the war effort. The media is a powerful tool that molds public opinion. When the government limits the freedom of press, the government filters information that is shared with the public. Therefore, citizens are denied information imperative in making decisions to either support or be against the war. In the 20th century nations have used the media as a method to promote nationalism. An example is the Nazi newspaper, Der Sturmer. This newspaper was created to promote the anti-Semitic sentiment in Germany by presenting Jews as enemies of the state. During WWII both the Japanese and American media focused on winning the war by presenting propaganda as news. The media fostered citizen support for the war effort in both nations.(18)

In the post September 11th years, there are many Americans in support of measures taken by the US government to protect American citizens from terrorism. Nonetheless, there are other Americans who believe the Patriot Act allows for a government abuse of power by violating privacy rights and setting limits on the freedom of information, although these rights are implied and protected by the Bill of Rights.(19) In the days, weeks, months, and years since the September 11th attacks the environment of America has been both one of patriotism and of skepticism, a time of pro-America bumper stickers and anti-war demonstrations. These years since the attacks have emphasized the Insider-Outsider binary in America. In this time of war, the Holocaust Equation has been set into motion. As we have seen throughout history, when there is an unstable nation and the use of nationalism is promoted by the government as a means to unify the nation there will always be persecuted minority groups whose freedoms are infringed upon. You can further explore the use of nationalistic tactics by having your students read President Bush's, "Address to the Nation" which was delivered to the American public nine days after the terrorist attacks. In this speech the President tells the nation and the world, "either you are with us or you are with the terrorists." Throughout the speech President Bush uses G-D and nation to unify Americans. He instructs Americans to "uphold the values of America." In his address the President establishes an Us versus Them ideology by categorizing the terrorists as "enemies of freedom" and "enemies of America."(20) This speech is a successful example of the use of nationalism in building a common enemy and ultimately promoting American citizenry support to go to war. This is the environment of post September 11th America.

Who are the American Outsiders?

Depending on the period you are studying you will find that there is a wide range of American Outsiders. Throughout United States history, Outsider identity has been based on categories of identification such as: race, political ideology, economic class, gender, religion, ethnicity, mental/ physical disability, and sexual orientation. Refer to the prior content knowledge of your students when demonstrating Insider-Outsider relationships within the United States. In a world history course students will be familiar with examples such as: The European tactics of assimilating the Native Americans; The role of Slavery in reinforcing the division between Whites and Blacks; The women's suffrage movement; or the implications of the Asian exclusion laws of 1882.

America is a Christian nation. In fact, one of the first structures built on American soil by Columbus and the Spanish conquistadors was a Catholic Church. Beginning with the European invasion, leading to the creation of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, and into the rise of Fundamentalism at the turn of the 20th century; Christianity has played a vital role in building America. Our laws and values are based upon a largely Judeo-Christian tradition. American principles about marriage, divorce, abortion, sexuality, and gender roles are rooted in this Judeo-Christian tradition. Reflect back on President Bush's, Address to the Nation, you will find that during this time of national crisis, the President attempts to create a sense of place for all Americans to relate to. The President brings comfort to a nation by speaking of values that most Americans find familiar such as: freedom, progress, and prayer.(21) Once again Americans are reminded of the presence of religion that is so fundamental to who we are and what it means to be American. So on September 11th, when a group of people who carry different cultural beliefs waged war against the United States, many Americans began to deem people from the Arab-Muslim world as the enemy. This leads to an opportunity for an interesting discussion about the intersection of identities with your students. One possible discussion question would be: What happens if you are a Muslim and an American or Arab and an American? Many would say that people of the Muslim faith or of Arab decent have become the Outsiders of post September 11th USA. According to the Human Rights Watch, in 2002 a reported number of 13,000 Muslim and/or Arab people without connections to terrorist organizations were deported and 1,200 people were detained without being charged with any crime. The Patriot Act justifies these actions against Muslims and Arabs as necessary security measures to protect the United States from terrorism.

Dating back to the early 20th century the debate between tradition and progress has been in existence. Fundamentalism is a term signifying the return to the fundamentals of Christian religious thought. In the early 20th century Fundamentalism grew in order to rescue religious identity from being taken over by Modernist beliefs. As women fought for suffrage and minorities found opportunities by relocating into cities; traditional identity roles were challenged. Modernism represents the new ideas and innovations of the early 20th century in the fields of: science; art; literature; technology; and communications. To teach students about the Fundamentalism - Modernism debate it would be beneficial to mention the Scopes Trial of 1925. The result of the trial was to allow the theory of Evolution to be taught in public schools. As we reflect on the United States in the years since September 11th we can detect the return to fundamentalism. Christian Fundamentalists in America are mobilizing against anyone who challenges their idea of what it means to be American. Amongst these challengers (viewed as Outsiders by the Fundamentalists) are: non-Christian religious groups, sexual minorities, and political liberals.(22) The Anatomy of Your Enemy unit is designed to explore the increase of anti-homosexual attitudes within the United States as a reaction to fundamentalism in the post September 11th years. With your students it would be beneficial to talk about current issues such as hate crime legislation, Gay Marriage, and the history of discrimination against sexual minorities in the workforce and military.

When those in power brand members of certain groups as "less than human" solely because their identity separates "them" from "us," they pave the way for gross human rights abuses against such groups (Amnesty International, 1999).

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."(23)

In 1990, the U.S. Congress created the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. This Act defines hate crimes as, "Crimes in which the defendant's conduct was motivated by hatred, bias, or prejudice based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation of another individual or group of individuals." Victimizing and intimidating individuals and entire groups of people because of their identity promotes silence and invisibility amongst members of the target group.(24)According to the Hate Crimes Statistics Act, reported incidences of hate crimes have ranged from murder, non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, aggravated assault, simple assault, intimidation, arson, and destruction, damage or vandalism of property. In 2000, FBI statistics reported that 16% of hate crimes were committed on the basis of sexual orientation. Unfortunately, because many gays in America are "closeted" --which means that they have kept their sexual identity a secret, many incidents of hate crimes go unreported. With your students you can create your own definition of what should constitute a hate crime. In this unit I propose that discriminatory government policy, legislation that violates the democratic freedoms of a specific group within our citizenry should also be considered a hate crime, because there are psychological impacts on "Outsider" groups that are excluded from government protections offered to the rest of America.

In the book Voted Out, author Glenda M. Russel, discusses the detrimental implications of discriminatory government policy, by evaluating the impact of Colorado's Amendment 2. In 1992, Colorado passed an amendment that allowed for discrimination against sexual minorities within the state. Sexual minorities are people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT).(25) Therefore, members of Colorado's LGBT community were denied legal protections in all realms of society, including the work force and housing. Russel suggests that the implications of the Amendment are that the state has the power to create legislation that violates the protections of certain American citizens. Furthermore, on a social level the Amendment set a precedent for the nation --that sexual minorities are not equally protected, encouraging anti-LGBT sentiment throughout the nation.

When thinking about the Holocaust many wonder how it was possible that Nazi ideology was able to mobilize citizens to commit acts of discrimination against their Jewish neighbors. To fully understand this we must analyze all avenues of the Holocaust. For example, we must consider the economic desperation of European nations after WWI. Additionally, we could take a closer look at the psychology of fear tactics used by the Nazi government. I believe that to teach the Holocaust successfully teachers must begin by looking at the roots of Anti-Semitism throughout Europe's history. In Hitler's book, Mein Kampf, he talks about exterminating the European Jewry. His ideas were not original. In fact, if you read an old manuscript by Martin Luther entitled, The Jews and Their Lies (1543), you find the use of almost identical Anti-Semitic language. These seeds of hatred are what allowed the Holocaust to occur.

Likewise, when talking about American anti-LGBT legislation in the post September 11th years it is important for us to teach the history of sexual minorities throughout American history. The film Before Stonewall can be used to introduce students to many positive contributions made by members of the LGBT community during the Harlem Renaissance, on the battlefields of the World Wars, and during the Civil Rights Movement. In addition to the film I will use excerpts from an historical fiction book entitled, Stone Butch Blues, by Leslie Feinberg. This book documents the experiences of a transgender person named Jess, from teenager to adulthood. Transgender refers to any human being who defines their own gender identity regardless of chromosomal sex, genitalia, assigned birth sex, or initial gender role.(26) Jess's story is powerful because it offers information of what life was like for sexual minorities in the United States from the 1960s and into the 1980s. These resources reveal the social injustices and discrimination imposed against members of the LGBT community throughout American history, and the seeds of hatred that enable post September 11th anti-gay legislation.

By taking a closer look at the 20th century, students will learn about topics such as: raids on LGBT sections of cities; the Red Scare of the 1920s and the Black Listing of the Cold War, in which many gays lost their jobs because they were falsely accused of being Communist; pink slips, which discharged homosexuals from the military during World War Two; Colorado's 1992 legislation that excluded sexual minorities from equal rights; and the lack of hate crime legislation to protect members of the LGBT community from physical and emotional violence. Studying this history is imperative in understanding the general attitude about homosexuality in the United States before the terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001. Your students will need to know what homophobia means and how it contributes to the "Insider/Outsider" power dynamic of our country. Homophobia is defined as the fear and hatred of those who are gay or lesbian. Homophobia could not exist without heterosexist beliefs. Therefore, students must know that heterosexism is the idea that heterosexuality is superior to other forms of sexual orientation identities.(27) It is this homophobic and heterosexist atmosphere that has allowed further discrimination against sexual minorities in the Post September 11th years.

What does Marriage represent?

In America the institution of marriage symbolizes cultural values that are rooted in Judeo-Christian tradition. Since September 11th, 11 states have passed a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. There are now 38 states that do not allow gay marriage.(28) Meanwhile in the world, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, and just last week Canada (July 20th, 2005), have passed legislation to legalize gay marriage. America is a nation that prides itself on being the strongest, the most democratic, and the freest. If this is the case, then why is America lagging behind with legislation that would make all Americans "free" and "equal?" An interesting question to present to your students would be: What makes America different from these four nations? Here you can explore the influence of Christian Fundamentalism in 20th century America. Additionally, President Bush's, Address to the Nation, demonstrates one example of America's leader encouraging citizens to uphold the values of being an American during this time of war. This use of nationalism during America's time of war has further placed the LGBT community as America's Outsiders.

I was inspired to create this unit when listening to the radio one afternoon. The report was about a young lesbian in Maryland. While walking down the street she was abducted by a group of young men. The perpetrators brutally raped her and etched the word "DYKE" into her chest. The most upsetting portion of the report was that this incident was only one of the many hate crimes committed against sexual minorities living in Maryland. Recently, Maryland Governor, Robert L. Ehrlich vetoed a bill for lesbian and gay rights, which would allow lesbian and gay men rights such as visiting partners in the hospital and making health care decisions for each other. As of yet, the governor of Maryland has not extended hate crime legislation to include sexual minorities.(29) Students can conduct research on Connecticut's LGBT legislation. Additionally, students can compare Connecticut's position to the positions of the remaining 49 states.

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Strategies

Warm-Ups/Warm-Downs

Throughout the unit students will demonstrate their understanding of historical concepts through a daily writing reflection, called a "warm-up." Each day, the students begin class by addressing a comparative analysis question that is reflective of the essential questions of the unit. The warm-up method has been successful in providing students an opportunity to organize their thoughts, questions, and ideas in advance of a whole-class discussion. Students refer to notes and class readings to provide support for their ideas. The warm-up serves as the prompt for class discussion and allows me to have individual dialogues with each student through feedback that I give in their warm-up notebooks. On occasion students will be required to end class with a "warm-down". This method offers an opportunity for students to reflect and to demonstrate an understanding for the contents of the lesson.

Interactive Lectures

I will provide students with historical background information through overhead notes and PowerPoint presentations. Lectures will analyze specific case studies relevant to the unit, and often be reinforced by visuals, film clips, music and lyrics, and reading excerpts. Lectures are interactive; therefore students are encouraged to openly contribute questions and ideas. The interactive lecture offers a basis for further whole class discussion.

Discussions

In this unit we will utilize the Role Card and the Whole Group discussion methods. These two methods have proven successful with honors students but can also be used with any group of high school aged students that exhibit intrinsic motivation, a genuine interest in the learning process. The Role Card method requires students to be assigned in to groups of 6 students. Each student receives a note card with an assigned role. This role informs the student of their responsibility for group discussion and provides that each student is an equal participant. The Facilitator generates questions, while the Note Taker records group ideas onto chart paper. The Challenger challenges the ideas of group members and the Support Provider encourages classmates to provide textual evidence. The Connector encourages classmates to connect discussion to the text and to world events, while the Task Master maintains discussion by encouraging the group to stay on task.

This discussion method requires all students to participate in their discussion group. These cards designate each student with certain responsibilities to fulfill during discussion. The direction of the discussion is determined by the Facilitator, who is to enable students to have a productive discussion by asking questions, encouraging group members to share ideas and monitoring inter-group communications.

Whole Group is a discussion facilitated by the teacher. This method of discussion is based on a Warm-up question that the students are presented with at the beginning of the period or homework questions that have been inspired by an assigned reading or film. Often the interactive lecture provides as the basis for whole class discussion. The teacher will prompt discussion by asking the class questions. These questions will require that students make connections to prior knowledge either from the course or from personal experience.

Flushing

A flush is any form of creativity that expresses an individual's opinion, perspective, feelings/emotions, and/or thoughts. Flushes are in the form of writing but because a flush requires personal expression some individuals include visuals, music, poetry, or free writing in their flushes. Flushing is a learning method that I use to allow students time for personal reflection. Flushes allow student to make personal connections to our unit of study. Usually we flush after viewing a film or reading an historical excerpt that depicts the personal impact of an historical event.

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Classroom Activities

Lesson Objectives

1. Students will be able to define the concept of nationalism in order to understand nationalism as a fundamental factor in government programs of discrimination, ethnic cleansing, and genocide.

2. By analyzing several instances of the "Holocaust Equation", students will be encouraged to make cross-cultural connections. This will enable students to understand the contributing factors that ultimately lead to the persecution of "Persecuted Minority" groups, throughout World and US history.

Sample Lesson Plans

The Holocaust Equation Lesson Plan

Time Management: 50 minute class

Creating the Persecuted Minority: The Roots of Homophobia in European Culture

Teaching Strategies: Interactive Lecture, Warm-down, and Whole Group Discussion

Objective Questions: What is the Holocaust Equation? What is Homophobia? What role has Homophobia played throughout European history? How has nationalism perpetuated Homophobia?

Important Topics:

- Rise of Absolutism in Europe

- Upholding the Power of the Catholic Church

- The use of fear tactics to target Outsider groups on the basis of Religion (Jews and Muslims)

- The Spanish Inquisition (Jews and Muslims)
- Jewish Expulsion from England and France
- Silencing openly gay leaders
- Edward II was the last openly gay monarch in England. He was murdered for being a homosexual.
Warm-down: Does this type of discrimination exist today? Students support their ideas with examples from their own life experiences.

Whole Group Discussion- I will spend the last portion of class time facilitating a Whole Group Discussion where students exchange their ideas and written warm-down responses.

Germany 1930s Rise of Hitler and Striking Down Democracy Lesson Plan

Time Management: 50 minute class

German Nationalism and Enemies of the State

Teaching Strategies: Interactive Lecture, Warm-down, and Whole Group Discussion

Objective Questions: Why will there be a wave of German nationalism in the Post WW1 years? How will a rise in German nationalism impact the lives of members of the "Persecuted Minority?"

Important Topics: War Guilt; Inflation; The Lost Generation; The Global Depression; Nuremberg Laws; 1933 Raids on Gay Bars; Paragraph 175; Enabling Act; Resistance Laws

- Clip, Prelude to War. This film clip demonstrates the power of voice used by Hitler and how he was received by the public. Additionally, the clip provides many examples of the limiting of Democratic freedoms in the Pre-Holocaust atmosphere of Germany in the 1930s.
Warm-Down: Using examples from the film clip, why do you think Hitler was able to mobilize the masses, to the point that he took away their individuality, yet he still held the support of the majority of Germany?

Whole Group Discussion- I will spend the last portion of class time facilitating a Whole Group Discussion where students exchange their ideas and written warm-down responses.

Music Man Lesson Plan

Time Management: 50 minute class

The Power of Voice

Teaching Strategies: Warm-up, Whole Class Discussion, and Interactive Lecture

1. Warm-Up: Students will watch the opening scene of The Music Man (Song…Trouble with a Capital T)

2. Next, students will answer the following questions in their warm-up journals…

a. What was Prof. Hill's goal?

b. What tactic did Prof. Hill use to achieve his goal?

c. What scapegoat has the Professor created as responsible for the town's "Trouble"?

d. In what way was Prof. Hill's tactic of unifying the town similar to tactics used by Hitler in creating a unified Germany?

e. Do you think Prof. Hill's scapegoat held a valid connection to the town's "Trouble" (explain why/not)?

f. Do you think Hitler's "Persecuted Minority" held a valid connection to the national troubles of Germany during the Post WW1 years (why/not)?

3. As a class there will be a facilitated whole class discussion of the Music Man Questions…

- The class will make connections to other instances in history when the tactic of Nationalism has been utilized as a means to create a stable government and society…
- Students will be asked to draw upon their previous knowledge base from history class…by sharing examples…
Examples) Armenian genocide and Turkish nationalism; Japan's Tokugawa Shogunate Hideyoshi; France's Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIV; Russia's pogroms; Nazi Germany

4. Introduce the Holocaust Equation-

Unstable Government + Nationalism = Persecuted Minority groups

- Students will take a moment to record equation into their notebooks
- Whole Group Discussion Continues…As I pose questions for students to consider…
Do you think that the United States has ever used tactics of nationalism in times of government/societal instability?

- Encourage student to make connections to previous WW1 Unit…Censorship of Socialists
5. An example of the Holocaust Equation in the USA could be the Japanese Internment Camps of WW2...

- Hand out Japanese Internment Camp Article
Bump Read as a class (students read out loud and bump to classmates, keeping everyone on task)

- Share several examples of Anti-Japanese Propaganda (Posters and Cartoons) that swept across the USA during WW2
6. As class comes to a close…students record one idea that they learned in class today into their notebooks…as I select students from around the room, students share their ideas with the class!

Nationalism and Propaganda Lesson Plan

Time Management: 90 minute class

Anatomy of your Enemy

Teaching Strategy: Interactive Lecture

1. Warm-Up: What is the Holocaust Equation? Be sure to include an example from yesterday's class discussion to support your ideas.

- Review- Students will share ideas and example of Japanese Internment Camps; the Holocaust; Socialists in the USA during WW1
2. Hand out- What is propaganda? worksheet

- Bump read as a class
- Defining Propaganda
3. Power Point Presentation offering various examples of Nazi Propaganda…

- Various examples from The Eternal Jew
- Selected Cartoons from Julius Streicher's, Der Sturmer
- Paragraph 175, Images of sections of towns being shut down, homosexuals being arrested, homosexuals in concentration camps, image of the Pink Triangle…demonstrating anti-gay sentiment in Nazi Propaganda.
- Pictures of victims of anti-LGBT hate crimes in America and excerpts from anti-LGBT legislation in post September 11th years.
4. Hand out Anti-Flag song lyrics, Anatomy of Your Enemy (Name of Album: Mobilize Name of Band: Anti-Flag Name of Song: Anatomy of Your Enemy. You can use an Internet search engine and enter the name of the band and then the name of the song to find the lyrics to use in your lesson.

- After playing the song to students, students will respond in their warm-up journals…
- In our current time of war, do you see our United States government utilizing nationalistic tactics?
- Share student ideas as a class…
5. Hand out homework reading and assignment

Address to the Nation (immediate reactions after September 11th 2001), by President George W. Bush

· In preparation for tomorrow's Role Card discussion, read the following selection and create a list of any examples of nationalistic tactics that the President promotes in our national time of desperation and instability

Tolerance Awareness Week Lesson Plan

Time Management: 50 minute class

Paperclips

Teaching Strategies: Warm-up and Whole Class Discussion

1. Warm-Up: Describe a time when you have experienced discrimination…where you the discriminator or the discriminated (Insider or the Outsider)…how did it feel?

- Whole Group discussion of student experiences…
2. Activity: Tolerance Awareness Week

As we are currently studying the causes of the Holocaust Equation …it seems appropriate to deem this week as Tolerance Awareness Week!

This is an opportunity for us to actively work together to prevent prejudice right here in our own school!

Assignment: Each of you have received 2 paperclips…these clips are to be a symbol of your silent movement against intolerance and prejudice everywhere…

For the next week we will wear 1 of these paperclips and share the other paperclip with any other person in this building who has either felt discrimination, dealt discrimination, or just is somebody who is all for making our school a more accepting place!

· Tell the person you choose to share this assignment with, whether it be a student or teacher, what the clip represents…The end to prejudice, discrimination, and intolerance everywhere including this school building!

The Objective:

- Students and teachers will become aware of the frequent presence and use of derogatory language in our school that works only to perpetuate hatred and prejudice…
- By wearing this paperclip and sharing it with a friend in the building we, together, can begin to end the intolerance in our building…it is the seed to acceptance! I hope you all will join me in this movement!

The Origins of Race Science: The Eugenics Movement Lesson Plan

Time Management: 50 minute class

Eugenics and Creating the Super Race

Assigned Reading: "American Gothic: A New Curriculum Explores a Disturbing Side of the Progressive Era." Teaching Tolerance Magazine

Questions and Class Discussion:

1. In your opinion is there a "moral dilemma" with the Eugenics movement? Why/not?

- Does the government have the power to take away someone's reproductive rights?
2. Throughout American history, how has the US government encouraged the Eugenics movement?

- Include examples from the article
3. In what ways did the ideology of Eugenics (by American thinkers) fuel the ideas behind the Nazi-led Holocaust?

- Impact on German science
- Impact on Hitler's philosophy of racial purification
4. How has the Eugenics movement come to impact our present world and country?

- Consider population policies in other countries
- Inequality in American society
- Any additional ideas that you may have thought of while reading…

Before Stone Wall Lesson Plan

Time Management: This film can be viewed in a 90-minute class

Based on the film, Before Stonewall

Film Questions:

- Use complete sentences and explanations
- Support your ideas completely with evidence offered in the film
- Answer on a separate sheet of paper

1. Why were cities a haven for homosexuals in the 1920s?

2. How did the home front effort of WW2 enable the Gay community to flourish?

3. In what ways will homosexuals fall victim to the McCarthy Era of the 1950s?

4. How will the Black Power and Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s encourage the Gay struggle towards Equality?

5. In what ways has Stonewall marked a turning point in the Gay Movement for Equality?

Day Two of Before Stone Wall Lesson Plan

- Whole Group Class Discussion about the film questions

Lesbian Gay Bi-Sexual Transgender Panel Presentation Lesson Plan (Must be arranged in advance)

Contact Information: http://www.yale.edu/lgbt/index.html

1 Most colleges have a Lesbian Gay Bi-Sexual Transgender student organization that has trained in leading panel discussions for college and high school classrooms. I will bring in the LGBT group from Yale to conduct a panel on being a sexual minority in the USA. The panel will be prepared to address: How to be an ally? Why homophobia is bad for everyone, not just persons who identify as LGBT? How to feel less alone if you are questioning your sexuality or gender?

2 Students receive time to ask questions of the LGBT representatives; and are then provided with contact information from the LGBT group.

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Resources

For Teachers

Books

Yehuda Bauer. A History of the Holocaust Revised Edition. (New York: Franklin Watts, 2001): This book provides background information about the Holocaust such as: the roots of Anti-Semitism; World War One and its aftermath; and Jewish resistance during the Holocaust. The book includes maps, charts, illustrations, and pictures helpful in teaching the Holocaust.

Richard Bulliet, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, David Northup. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997): This is a World history book that provides background information about the world in the post WWI years.

Leslie Feinberg. Transgender Warriors. (Boston, Beacon Press, 1996): This book is both an historical account and a dedication to members of the worldwide Transgender community. Feinberg successfully uncovers evidence that there have always been people who crossed the cultural boundaries of gender.

Lorie McElroy-Jenkins, edit. Voices of the Holocaust. (Detroit: UXL, an imprint of Gale, 1998): This book is comprised of 34 documents written by the people whose lives were impacted by the events of the Holocaust. Documents include: autobiographical essays, diary entries, newspaper articles, court transcripts, and letters.

Gary Nash, Julie Roy Jeffrey, John R. Howe, Peter Frederick, Allen F. Davis, and Allan M. Winkler. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. (New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc., 1998): This is an American history book that provides background information about the United States in the post WWI years.

Richard Plant. The Pink Triangle. (New York: Owl Books, 1988): This is one of the first publications to record the fate of homosexuals in Nazi Germany. The book reveals how the anti-homosexual campaign was conducted and shares the stories of the victims.

Samantha Power. A Problem from Hell. (New York: HarperCollins, 2002): This book discusses the problem of genocide in the 20th century. Powers offers incite about the roots of conflict. She exposes U.S. leaders' lack of intervention and proposes the need for U.S. leaders to take accountability in preventing future instances of genocide.

Mary Swigonski, Robin Sakina Mama, Kelly Ward, edit. From Hate Crimes to Human rights: A tribute to Matthew Shepard. (New York: Harringon Park Press, 2001): Inspired by the tragedy of Matthew Shepard's murder, the editors have compiled a book of essays. The book focuses on the ways that bigotry generates hate crimes and proposes positive courses of action that promote human rights.

Articles

Becky Albitz. "Dude, Where are My Civil Rights?" (The Journal of Academic Librarianship Vol. 31 Issue 3, 2005: 284): This article discusses the impact of the Patriot Act on the freedom of information.

Sig Christenson. "Truth and Trust: In Iraq War Coverage, They've Become Casualties."(Nieman Reports Summer 2005, Vol. 59 Issue 2, p6, 6p): This article reports on the relationship between the media and the military during times of war.

David Cortright. "Iraq: The Human Toll." (The Nation. August 1, 2005): This article presents the Iraqi war from the Iraqi perspective. It reports on the impact of war on Iraqi civilians.

Chad Graham. "Gay in the red states." (Advocate Issue 932 Feb 2005: 34):This article discusses how the LGBT community of Oklahoma strives to live openly, and fight for their rights amidst banning of gay rights law in the state. In 2004, Oklahoma was one of 11 states that passed a state constitutional ban on same-sex marriage.

"Maryland governor vetoes lesbian, gay rights bill." (Off Our Backs Vol. 35 Issue 5 May 2005: 9): This article discusses Maryland's governor, Robert L. Ehrlich's, veto involving the bill on lesbians and gay men rights. The bill would have given lesbian and gay men rights such as visiting partners in the hospital and making health care decisions for each other.

Kiara Vigil. "How American is it? Charles Eastman's Autobiographical Construction of Manhood." (Dartmouth College: Introduction to Master's Thesis, 2005): In the introduction to her Master's Thesis, Vigil explores the influence of gender and race on the autobiographical writings of Charles Eastman.

Media

VHS: The Propaganda Wars: Japan & the U.S. and the Battle for Hearts and Minds (1994): This History Channel documentary demonstrates the influence of propaganda on both Japanese and American citizens during WWII.

For Students

Readings

George Bush. "Address to the Nation"(September 20, 2001): On September 20th, 2001, President Bush delivered his Address to the Nation. In this speech the President tells the nation and the world, "either you are with us or you are with the terrorists." Throughout the speech President Bush uses G-D and nation to unify Americans. He instructs Americans to "uphold the values of America." In his address the President establishes an Us versus Them ideology by categorizing the terrorists as "enemies of freedom" and "enemies of America." This speech is a successful example of the use of nationalism in building a common enemy and ultimately promoting American citizenry support to go to war.

Leslie Feinberg. Stone Butch Blues (Los Angeles, California: Alyson Books, 2003): This book documents the experiences of a transgender person named Jess, from teenager to adulthood. Transgender refers to any human being who defines their own gender identity regardless of chromosomal sex, genitalia, assigned birth sex, or initial gender role. Jess's story is powerful, because it offers information of what life was like for sexual minorities in the United States from the 1960s and into the 1980s.

Martin Luther. The Jews and Their Lies (http://www.fordam.edu/halsall/source/luther-jews.html, 2003): This excerpt was written in Medieval Europe in 1543. To teach the Holocaust successfully teachers must begin by looking at the roots of Anti-Semitism throughout Europe's history. In Hitler's book, Mein Kampf, he talks about exterminating the European Jewry. His ideas were not original. By reading Martin Luther's, The Jews and Their Lies (1543), you find the use of almost identical Anti-Semitic language. These seeds of hatred are what allowed the Holocaust to occur.

Christopher Reardon. "American Gothic: A New Curriculum Explores a Disturbing Side of the Progressive Era." (Teaching Tolerance, Spring 2003, 18): This article will introduce students to Eugenics. Eugenics means the science of race, and it promoted the idea that one race is superior to other races of people. It is important for students to be informed that in the early part of the 20th century many American scientists and scholars developed the Eugenics movement, which Adolf Hitler (the future Furher of Germany) makes reference to in his book, Mein Kampf.

Media

VHS: Before Stonewall (1984): The documentary, directed by John Scagliotti and Greta Schiller, will introduce students to many positive contributions made by members of the Lesbian Gay Bi-Sexual Transgender community during the Harlem Renaissance, on the battlefields of the World Wars, and during the Civil Rights Movement.

VHS: Prelude to War (1943): The film, produced by Frank Capra, is a World War II US government film that defines the various enemies of the Allies and why they must be fought.

VHS: The Music Man (1962): The movie, directed by Morton DaCosta, is about a con man that comes to River City. The character, Prof. Hill, utilizes tactics to capture the hearts and mind of the citizens of this midwestern town.

Music: Anti-Flag, Mobilize: Anatomy of Your Enemy (2002): You can use an Internet search engine and enter the name of the band and then the name of the song to find the lyrics to use in your lesson. The song lyrics discuss the use of government tactics of nationalism during a time of war. Additionally, the song discusses the powerful role of the media during times of war.

Materials for Classroom Activities

Copies of "American Gothic: A New Curriculum Explores a Disturbing Side of the Progressive Era." (Eugenics article)

Copies of The Jews and Their Lies excerpt

Copies Stone Butch Blues excerpt

Copies of "Address to the Nation"

Copies of Japanese Internment Camp Article (use the internet to find personal accounts)

Copies of "What is Propaganda Worksheet" (produced by the teacher)

Copy of lyrics to Anatomy of Your Enemy, by Anti-Flag

LCD projector with power point of Nazi propaganda (produced by the teacher)

CD player and the song, Anatomy of Your Enemy

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Endnotes

1. Anti-Flag, Mobilize: Anatomy of Your Enemy, 2002. (Based on a song by Anti-Flag)

2. YNHTI 2005 Seminar Notes: Intersecting Identities. Prof. Ange-Marie Hancock

3. YNHTI 2005 Seminar Notes: Intersecting Identities. Prof. Ange-Marie Hancock

4. YNHTI 2005 Seminar Notes: Intersecting Identities. Prof. Ange-Marie Hancock

5. Nash, Gary., Julie Roy Jeffrey, John R. Howe, Peter Frederick, Allen F. Davis, and Allan M. Winkler. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc., 1998

6. Bulliet, Richard. Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, David Northup. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997.

7. Nash, Gary., Julie Roy Jeffrey, John R. Howe, Peter Frederick, Allen F. Davis, and Allan M. Winkler. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc., 1998

8. Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle. New York: Owl Books, 1988

9. Reardon, Christopher. "American Gothic: A New Curriculum Explores a Disturbing Side of the Progressive Era." Teaching Tolerance, Spring 2003, 18.

10. Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle. New York: Owl Books, 1988

11. McElroy-Jenkins, Lorie, edit. Voices of the Holocaust. Detroit: UXL, an imprint of Gale, 1998.

12. Bauer, Yehuda. A History of the Holocaust Revised Edition. New York: Franklin Watts, 2001.

13. Power, Samantha. A Problem from Hell. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

14. United States Congress. Patriot Act. Washington DC, 2001.

15. National Public Radio. July, 2005

16. Cortright, David. "Iraq: The Human Toll." The Nation. August 1, 2005.

17. Christenson, Sig. "Truth and Trust: In Iraq War Coverage, They've Become Casualties."Nieman Reports Summer 2005, Vol. 59 Issue 2, p6, 6p

18. The Propaganda Wars: Japan & the U.S. and the Battle for Hearts and Minds. The History Channel. New York, New York: 1994.

19. Albitz, Becky. "Dude, Where are My Civil Rights?" The Journal of Academic Librarianship Vol. 31 Issue 3 (2005): 284

20. Bush, George. "Address to the Nation". September 20, 2001.

21. Bush, George. "Address to the Nation". September 20, 2001.

22. Vigil, Kiara. "How American is it? Charles Eastman's Autobiographical Construction of Manhood." (Dartmouth College Introduction to Master's Thesis, 2005).

23. United Nations, 1948.

24. Swigonski, Mary., Robin Sakina Mama, Kelly Ward, edit. From Hate Crimes to Human rights: A tribute to Matthew Shepard. New York: Harringon Park Press, 2001

25. Swigonski, Mary., Robin Sakina Mama, Kelly Ward, edit From Hate Crimes to Human rights: A tribute to Matthew Shepard. New York: Harringon Park Press, 2001.

26. Feinberg, Leslie. Transgender Warriors. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996.

27. Swigonski, Mary., Robin Sakina Mama, Kelly Ward, edit. From Hate Crimes to Human rights: A tribute to Matthew Shepard. New York: Harringon Park Press, 2001.

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