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Breaking Bread -- Building Bridges through the Art of Latino Cuisine

by
Diane Nichols


Contents of Curriculum Unit 06.02.05:

To Guide Entry


Introduction

My curriculum unit entitled, "Breaking Bread - Building Bridges", is intended as a springboard from which I can teach my students to understand and appreciate other cultures. Most young people are interested in food. The old saying "the way to a man's heart is through his stomach" can be applied to young people as well.

I teach both Spanish and a Language Exploratory course. Grade seven takes Spanish 1A (which is the first part of a high school level one course). Grade eight takes Spanish 1B (1A and 1B make up level one). Upon successful completion students are eligible for Spanish Two as high school freshmen. Kindergarten and grade one students take a "Spanish for Beginners" course. Students not taking a level one Spanish course are offered the Language Exploratory course, which is an introduction to the study of World Languages. This program includes Spanish, Latin, French and Italian. Along with basic vocabulary, culture is also introduced.

My school is a newly-formed grammar school in New Haven, CT consisting of grades kindergarten, one and two, as well as grades five, six, seventh and eight. It is considered an inner-city school; 85% of our school's population is African-American, while Latinos roughly make up the other 15%. We have very few Caucasian students in our school.

This unit is designed for middle and high school students taking a level one Spanish course. I am the only world Language teacher in our school, which makes my job very ambitious. Time is a very precious commodity for me and I try to use it wisely. My students are not always receptive to my subject area. Spanish is not an elective but a requirement for them. The majority of my teaching time is spent on teaching Spanish, as well as culture. Culture is a great way to "hook" the students' interest in the language.

I think culture helps my Latino students develop a sense of pride, which allows them to speak and share with a sense of freedom. This culture connection gives my African-American students about areas they know little or nothing about. My hope is they develop an understanding about their Latino classmates and the Latino community at large. Many of my students see the world through their limited view, and not the whole picture. The Spanish language and culture provides for me a way to do just that.

I want my students to appreciate and understand how we're alike and different from people around the world. I must be realistic that many of my students are not sensitive to other minorities, even though they are themselves considered a minority. Many have not even left New Haven. The challenge is to build a bridge between them and others. I must make what I teach relevant to my student population. They always want to see what is in it for them. The topic must be interesting and pertinent to their lives. I believe my unit will do just that. Most young people love food, no matter where they are from. Food can be a wonderful way to break down barriers. Starting with a topic like this, I feel I can capture their attention and interest, which should lead the way to cover many other aspects of Latino culture. I will be able to springboard into other current event topics in the Latino world. Such topics might include the growing Latino population in New Haven, as well as the in the United States, the role of Spanish vocabulary in English, the Latino influence on U.S. architecture and immigration issues, just to name a few.

My unit will focus mostly on two important food staples in the Latino cuisine, corn and chocolate. I believe besides being important, they will be a topic of high interest to my students; especially because of the connection between corn and chocolate in their everyday diet here in America. It will also begin with an introductory background to the Mexican and Puerto Rican cuisine. Most of my Latino students are of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent. I would like them to share with their fellow classmates their knowledge of this popular topic. I would also like them to see how important Latino cuisine is in America. They will become aware of the role chocolate and corn play in Latino cuisine, as well as in American cuisine.

In addition, I want my students to be introduced to the finer aspects of dining, such as meal preparations, etiquette and the cuisine for special celebrations. Puerto Rican chef Oswald Rivera writes, "Food is the great equalizer" (1). In my opinion, it is a great starting point where people come together.

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A buen hombre no hay pan duro

For the good man there’ll be no stale bread.

Latino cuisine covers a large geographical area. From the Caribbean to Central America, each country exhibits a great variety and some similarities in food. No matter what the political climate is between the U.S. and Latin America, Americans have a taste for Mexican cuisine. Mexican food has been elevated to number one in popularity among ethnic foods in the U.S. Salsa gas become the number one condiment in the United States.

Rich Bayless, author of the cookbook "Mexico: One Plate at a Time," writes, "To be completely healthy we have to exercise our connection to the world we live in. Food provides the perfect medium for that" (2). Bayless also writes Mexican cuisine is the diet that provides just that. The flavors and tastes of Mexico also contain the elements and influences of Europe, Africa and the U.S. The popular cuisine of "Tex-Mex" is based on Mexican food. In Mexico, many traditions which are practiced today are built upon traditions from the past. The day starts with a quick meal; the heaviest meal is still in the afternoon. Large fiestas and family gatherings, along with block parties and Saint Day celebrations are rituals of presentation. Grandmothers, mothers, daughters and aunts come together over huge kitchen tables to prepare all dishes.

Food is prepared for the entire neighborhood. In some households, snacks are prepared and placed on silver plates. The table is set with embroidered tablecloths and tropical fruits. Some mosels are set in a tiny cup, made from colored paper or on a little doily. Many snacks are enjoyed before and after meals.

Elena, a Chicana waitress working at a popular restaurant in nearby Hamden called "Ixtapa Grille", remembers her grandmother cooking with a lot of peppers (chiles). Breakfast might be eggs scrambled with chiles, tomatillos (small green tomatoes), along with beans. Lunch would be tamales (corn husk filled with meat). Dinner might consist of Mexican chili con carne, which is different from the American version of this dish. The Mexican version contains top sirloin rather than ground beef.

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Puerto Rican Cuisine

Puerto Rican cuisine has several influences, Spanish, Dutch, English, much of the Caribbean and particularly French. Food stuffs can be found at the marquetas. Expansive and expressive ingredients are important. Sofrita, adoba, robust and luscious, are embedded in the dishes.

Puerto Rican kitchens must have the items of a cast iron pot and a metate. There are no separate courses. The pig was and still is the favorite meal in Puerto Rico, as well as Latin America.

Puerto Rican cuisine is very similar to the cuisine found throughout Latin America. Some favorite dishes include sancocho (vegetable stew with meat), arroz con pollo (rice with chicken), pasteles (green banana and meat patties wrapped in plantain leaves, and boiled rice with pigeon beans); cochfritos (fritter stuffed with meat as well as arroz con gandules sofrito) is a Puerto Rican ingredient. This is a combination of cilantro, Spanish onions, sweet peppers as well as recao. It can be made in a blender or mashed in a wooden bowl with pestle. Sofrito can be used in soups, meats, beans and rice. Achiote is another popular ingredient that makes rice yellow.

Other delights of this cuisine are helados de coco (coconut rice) de pina (pineapple y papaya). Popular Puerto Rican beverages are café con leche, pina colada, navi and malta. Malta is a drink consisting of barley, molasses and hops.

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Specialties in Latin America

Ropa vieja (Cuba) - Casserole, containing ground beef, chicken, sausage, peppers, onions, and garlic in saffron rice.

Chile con carne (Mexico) - Sirloin, tomatoes, onion, green peppers and kidney beans, seasoned with chili powder.

Chocolate (Mexico) - Thick hot chocolate that is often eaten with a spoon, or used for drinking churros (long doughnuts).

Tacos (Mexico) - folded tortillas (corn flour pancakes) often filled with chili-flavored meant, refried beans, lettuce, tomatoes, cheese, etc…

Chilies rellenos (Mexico) Peppers, refried and stuffed with ground beef, cheese, beans or tuna.

Espanadas (Mexico) turnover - may be baked or fried and filled with meat, vegetables, fruit or sweets.

Cuchifritos (Puerto Rico) fritters stuffed with meat.

Pernil (Puerto Rico) roast pork shoulder.

Arroz con habichuelas (Puerto Rico) - white or yellow rice with beans on the side.

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Corn (Maize): A Latino Staple

One of the most important foods traveling from America to Europe and around to other parts of the world was corn. It is common for many food systems to be dominated by a particular food item that is closely identified with the culture, and can be considered vital to the groups' well being.

In Mexico, this role is played corn (Zea Mays) (3). As Eva de Lourdes Diaz wrote, "corn is the bread of America, the gift of Quetzalcoatl. Man is made of corn; a sacred plant." (4). It is an important and respected food in Mexico. Corn plays an important role in the ceremonial ritual, and agricultural life of the Mexican people; it's also an ancient plant of Mesoamerica. Corn is a staple grain that was domesticated about 7,000 to 10,000 years ago in Mexico.

Corn comes from a grass called teosinte (zea Mexicana). The Incas of Peru, the Mayas and the Aztecs of Mexico depended on corn. Corn is so important in the Mexican diet that no meal can be considered a proper one without it. Aztec women breathed on corn kernels before placing them in a pot to cook so they would not be afraid of the fire (5).

Columbus brought corn back to Europe, where it became just as important there as in Mexico. Corn is considered the third-largest food crop in the world. Mexicans enjoy corn in some form in all three meals and snacks.

Corn can be prepared in many ways. It can be boiled, roasted, toasted and ground into corn flour. Whole kernels are used in a variety of stews. Cooks try to use all the parts of the corn plant when cooking. Corn yields much more grain per acre than wheat or rice (6). There are more than 300 varieties of corn.

Originally, corn was a tropical plant; however corn can grow and different types of soils and climates. Some varieties can even grow in the Alaska and Russia. The growing patterns of corn can be quite different. Some take two months to grow, while others take up to seven months. Some varieties grow many feet high; others grow only a few inches. Some kernels are small; others are large. The color of corn kernels can be different in color as well. The corn kernels can be white, yellow, red, purple or even striped.

The most common use of corn in present day Mexico can be found in the form of tortillas and tamales. There are many other food items that re made with corn products as well. Corn is used to make Atole; a stew-like dish thickened with masa (wet milled corn), sweetened with sugar, flavored with crushed fruit, and seasoned with chile pepper. Champurrado is atole flavored with chocolate, another important Mexican treat.

Corn is the base for many beverages such as chilote, tan chuera, and tejate; just to name a few. Tanchuera contains corn kernels, chocolate and anise. Tascalate contains ground tortillas, water and chocolate. Other popular Mexican beverages contain apple, vinegar, sugar cane, honey and cactus paddles.

Besides its popularity in Mexico, corn is the leading crop in Central America, Argentina, parts of Chile, the West Indies and in the United States. Corn offers many advantages over wheat. It produces more calories in less space, and in less time. It can also require less man power than wheat to maintain.

The pestle is the instrument which is used to grind soft corn for the making of corn flour. It is made of stone. Other varieties of corn besides soft corn are pop, dent and sweet (the most familiar of types).

Tamales and tortillas are not only enjoyed for special occasions, but are eaten on a daily basis. Tamales and tortillas are made with the same corn dough, called masa. Tamales of many varieties are enjoyed in many regions of the country. Their fillings include pork, chicken with beans and chili peppers. Tortillas are compared to American corn pancakes. Tortillas come in many colors. The white or yellow tortillas are most common and eaten daily. Fillings can be beans, chicken, onions, cheese, pork and sour cream. Small finger food tortillas are snack food. Sopes and chalupas are a few varieties of this little tortilla.

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The Corn Connection in the U.S.

Corn is also a crop of great importance in the United States. Farmers have grown so much of it in the past and in the present that we have a surplus of it. Corn byproducts have shown up in many of the foods we consume today. Corn oil, corn syrup, and corn starch, can be found in most processed foods we buy. Here is a partial list of foods that have some type of corn in them:

Ketchup

A-1

Crackers

Cheese sticks

Cookies

Snack Cakes

Peanut Butter

Brownie Mix

Barbeque Sauce

Bread

Cereal

Ravioli (canned)

Candy

Rice Cakes

Trail Mix

Maple Syrup

English muffins

Sour Cream

Yogurt

Frozen Pizza

Ice Cream

The U.S. government gives corn away as food aid to foreign countries. The surplus has also prompted the government to pay farmers not to grow it. So, it's no surprise to learn that it is of great importance to the diet of Latin America and the world in general.

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Chocolate - The Gold of the New World

The story of chocolate begins in Mexico and Central America, long before the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Cacao (the chocolate tree) is Greek and means, "food of the gods"(7). After processing, the seeds, whether in liquid or solid form, become chocolate (8). At first, chocolate was luxury food in pre-Hispanic Mexico that was only enjoyed by royalty. "Theobroma Cacao" was the name given by Linnaeus, a Swedish biologist. The word cacao comes from the Mayan word "kakaw". The Aztecs then called it chocolatl, or, "chocolate and water."

The English word chocolate is derived from the Nahault term chocolatl (9). Today, cacao refers to the tree and its products before processing. Chocolate refers to any manufactured cocoa product.

During the time of the Aztecs cocoa beans were used as currency. Cocoa was a holy beverage to be sipped during religious celebrations. The Aztec Indians offered the rain god the blood of a sacrificial victim along with tamales, stew and chocolate (10). The Mexican calendar abounded with religious and civic festivals, each having its own special foods and functions. Mexican nobles had to provide on elaborate menu including costly chocolate (11). Moctezuma the Tlatoani literally drank money. The cocoa beans were ground into a powder placed in boiling water, sweetened with honey and whipped to a frothy head; making chocolate the drink of the lords (12).

Columbus first saw this treasure on his first voyage in 1502. Legend has it that Columbus thought the Indians' eyes fell out when the fell to the ground to round up the cocoa beans. The chocolate of the Spanish conquistadors was different from what chocolate is today. The Aztec version was bitter to the taste and frothy. Some Spaniards saw it as a drink which could cause intoxication. Some believed it had healing powers.

The Spanish nuns in Mexico to convert the native Indians to Christianity added sugar to make the drink sweeter. Soon after, chocolate made its way to Spain. Chocolate soon became the most popular beverage of New Spain. Over the years the Spanish added such flavors as vanilla, cinnamon and other spices to enhance its taste. Chocolate was a secret in Spain for nearly a century. Eventually, the secret got out.

Chocolate then traveled to the French court of King Louis XIII. Chocolate quickly spread to other countries, such as England, Germany and Switzerland. It soon became a favorite treat. Chocolate in Europe was considered a gift of extravagance. Thomas Gage, an English priest who visited New Spain in the seventeenth century, described the women of Chiapas as being so addicted to chocolate that they drank it during mass (13).

Chocolate is a widely-used ingredient in Mexican cooking. Special chocolate is still being ground on a metate in some parts of Oaxaca, Chiapas, and a place called Michoacan. Chocolate is shaped into tablets and round balls to be used for baking or the making of hot chocolate. Sometimes, the metate grounds almonds and sugar, as well as cinnamon or vanilla. Hot chocolate is great with tamales. During some celebrations such as New Years Eve, All Saints Day, funerals, and other gatherings, chocolate tablets are left on the altar as an offering. Hot chocolate is consumed by adults and children in Mexico.

Chocolate during the 19th century took a turn. It is now made as a solid or powder form that is good for baking. Chocolate is now produced as an important ingredient in mole or candy. Chocolate mole (a type of sauce served with tamales), or mole poblano, is very popular with Mexican cooking.

There are three tales about the invention of mole poblano. One story says that the nuns of Santa Rusca Convent in Puebla were nervous over the impending visit of their bishop. Sor Andrea was in charge of making the sauce for the meal, but chocolate accidentally tumbled into the basin from a shelf above, right into where the mixture was stewing. It was too late to make another sauce; consequently, mole poblano was born (14).

Accident or not, chocolate is a taste loved around the world. There are a few places where chocolate is not as popular. However, chocolate is a special treat for the palate. Beverages made from chocolate are: tejate, pozol, masa de nixtamal, tascalate, chocolateatole, and (of course) hot chocolate.

As one studies the importance of chocolate in history, it becomes clear from its early beginnings it has become an important food and ingredient; not only in Latin America but throughout Europe and the U.S. today. One only has to take a trip to any supermarket, drug store, or mall to see this. Chocolate has traveled full-circle back to Mexico and cocina Latina.

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Lessons for Unit

The following lesson plans are developed for ten 50-minute classes. They are intended for a beginning level I Spanish class. They can be adapted for a longer period of study, if desired. The following are recommended for middle school level I or high school level I Spanish courses.

Lesson I - Days one and two:

Objectives:

· Students will identify and understand the importance of chocolate and corn in Latino cuisine.
· Students will become aware of the influence of Latino cuisine in the United States.
· Students will learn new vocabulary pertaining to Latino cuisine.
· Students will be able to identify the ways in which corn and chocolate affect their everyday lives.

Opening Activity:

Students will take "Food Fun Trivia Quiz" in order to assess any prior knowledge on topic. Upon completion, the teacher will go over answers with students and share basic information on answers.

Activity Two:

Students will write a short paragraph on topic: "When I think of Latino cuisine, I…"

Activity Three:

Students will define the following terms for their food glossary:

1) Cacao
2) Cocoa
3) Molinillo
4) Metate
5) Mole
6) Maize
7) Teosinte
8) Atole
9) Masa
10) Tamales
11) Tortillas
12) Taco
13) Quesadilla
14) Salsa
15) Chilote

Activity Four:

Students will divide into two groups. Each will be assigned a quote to talk about. They will list the reasons why corn is such an important part of the world diet.

· Group 1 - Mexicans remain a people of corn
· Group 2 - Chocolate: the food of the gods. What do you think was meant by that? One student writes down responses to quotes on a piece of poster board. Both sheets are placed on the wall to be discussed for next class.

Closing Activity:

Students say one fact that they have learned in class about unit.

Homework:

Students will make a list of food items in their home that are made with or contain an ingredient of corn and Chocolate.

Lesson II - Days three and four:

Objectives:

· Students will review the main objectives in lesson one.
· Students will share with one another the importance of corn and Chocolate in Latino cuisine.
· Students will compare and contrast the connections and importance of Chocolate in the U.S. and Mexican diet.
· Students will learn about the importance of Puerto Rican cuisine and how it is similar and different from Mexican cuisine.
· Students will choose a holiday which is celebrated in both Puerto Rico and Mexico in order to develop a party menu.

Opening Activity:

Students will divide back into the previous days' groups. Each group will be assigned a speaker by teacher to report on groups' findings to the following statements:

· Mexicans remain a people of corn.
· Chocolate: the food of the gods.

Activity Two:

Students will take their food lists generated to fill-in their own Venn Diagram.

Students will turn in their completed diagrams for grade.

Activity Three:

Teacher will then generate a discussion based on students' food lists from home. Students will then become aware of the large that corn and chocolate play in the U.S.

Activity Four:

Teacher will discuss with students the key points about Puerto Rican cuisine. Students will be given excerpts from the book, "The New Americans - Puerto Ricans in the United States", by Maria Perez y Gonzalez (pages 22-23, 18-20). Students will answer the following questions based on excerpts:

1) Name three popular Puerto Rican dishes.
2) What is sofrito, and how it is used?
3) What ingredient makes rice yellow?
4) Name two popular Puerto Rican food brands.
5) Name two food items that are found in Puerto Rico and Mexico.
6) What movie made from a book portrays the idea, "the taste of the food reflects the chef's mood?"
7) Name one holiday which is celebrated in Puerto Rico and Mexico.

Activity Five:

Students will choose one holiday celebrated in Puerto Rico or Mexico. Students will prepare an authentic menu for a party hosted on that day. Students can use cookbooks and textbooks in class or in the library. The menus must include items which contain corn and chocolate.

Closing activity:

Students will share with the class what holiday they have chosen and why.

Homework:

Students will work on menus at home.

Lesson III - Days 5, 6, 7 and 8

Objectives:

· Students will reinforce foods associated with Puerto Rican and Mexican cuisine.
· Students will discover the legends behind chocolate.
· Students will become knowledgeable in the Aztec connections with chocolate.

Opening Activity:

Students will learn to share one menu item with each other, and its connection to Puerto Rico and Mexico.

Activity Two:

Students will finish working on menus for their holiday. When the menus are completed, students will design a poster inviting guests to the party.

Activity Three:

Students will view the film, "Chocolat".

Activity Four:

Students will read about the Aztecs and the role of chocolate in their lives: "The True History of Chocolate," by Michael & Sophie Coe (pages 77-78, 93-99). Students will also create a tale about the character of Vianne being an Aztec Princesss and why according to their interpretation from the movie (due to its length of 122 minutes, the viewing could run into a fourth day depending on the length of your classes).

Closing Activity:

Teacher will answer student questions on film.

Homework:

Students will complete tales.

Lesson IV - days 9 and 10

Objectives:

· Students will learn about the importance of corn as a staple food in Mexico.
· Students will make the connection of the role of chocolate and corn in Latino cuisines.
· Students will draw conclusions about the role of Latino cuisine in the world-wide community.

Opening Activity:

Students will share their tales about Vianne with classmates.

Activity Two:

Students will listen to a story about "Lord Corn Cob." Teacher reads excerpt from book, "Que Vivan los tomales", by Jeffrey M. Pilcher. Chapter: "People of Corn."

Activity Three:

Students will create a poem about "Lord Corn Cob."

Activity Four:

Students will research a Puerto Rican or Mexican recipe. They will prepare the dish to bring to class to share.

Closing Activity:

Students will share one fact about why Latino cuisine is so popular in the United States.

Homework:

Prepare recipe.

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Culminating Activity - "Fiesta Latina"

Depending on the time of year, you can coordinate with the nearest holiday. Some examples include:

· Fall - "Day of the Dead"

· Winter - Christmas, "Three Kings Day"

· Spring - "El Cinco de Mayo"

Food Fun Trivia Quiz

1.) What is the number one selling condiment in the United States?

a. ketchup b. mustard c. salsa

2.) How many different varieties of corn are there?

a. 30 b. 33 c. 300

3.) The popular dish chile con carne originated in

a. Puerto Rico b. Mexico c. Texas

4.) The most popular ethnic food in the U.S. is:

a. Chinese b. Italian c. Mexican

5.) Chocolate originally was:

a. eaten b. baked c. drunk

6.) The mass production of Chocolate was first done in:

a. England b. Switzerland c. United States

7.) Originally the taste of Chocolate was:

a. salty b. spicy c. bitter

8.) What type of corn can be easily ground?

a. sweet b. pop c. soft

9.) The word maize means:

a. maze b. rice c. corn

10.) What was considered the gold of the old world?

a. corn b.rice c. chocolate

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Notes

1.) Puerto Rican Cuisine in America (Rivera, Oswald. 2002, Thunders Mouth Press; 2nd edition) for quote from Puerto Rican chef about Latino cuisine.

2.) Mexico, One Plate at a Time (Bayless, Rick, Jean-Marie Brownson, Deann Groen-Bayless. 2000, Scribner) for quote about Mexican food

3, 4.) Cultural Aspects of Spanish in the New World (de Lourdes, Eva) for article about the role of corn.

(5, 6.) Food Culture in Mexico (Solis, Janet-Long, Luis Alberto Vargas. 2005, Greenwood Press) describes a legend about Columbus' reaction to Aztec Indians when dropping cocoa beans (page 33).

(7, 8.) The True History of Chocolate (Coe, Sophie & Michael. 1996, Thames and Hudson) commenting on the story of chocolate.

(9.) Ibid. (5,6.) to explain how the English word for "chocolate" came about (page 44).

(10,11.) Que vivan los tamales (Pilcher, Jeffrey M. 1998, University of New Mexico Press) for more about Aztec sacrifices to the rain god (pages 14, 15).

12.) The Dynamic of Mexican Nationalism (Turner, Frederick C. Chapel Hill: 1968, University of North Carolina Press) talking about the making the making of chocolate.

13.) Ibid. (10, 11.) to explain reaction of English priest Thomas Gage watching women drinking chocolate during mass (page 31).

14.) Ibid. (7,8.) to explain the legend of mole poblano (page 217).

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Bibliography

Bayless, Rich, Bayless, Deann Groen, Brownson, Jean Marie. Mexico, One Plate at A Time. Cookbook with colorful language.

Brooks, Eugene Clyde. "The Story of Corn and the Westward Migration" Rand McNally, undated.

Coe, Michael & Sophie. The True History of Chocolate. Thames and Hudson, 1996. A great complete history of chocolate.

Coe, Sophie. America's First Cuisines. University of Texas Press, 1994. informative story about Latino cuisine.

Long-Solis, Janet, Vargas, Luis Alberto. Food Culture in Mexico. Greenwood Press, 2005. A great read.

Perez, Marie E, Gonzalez. Puerto Rican in the United States, The New Americans.

Greenwood Press, 2000.

Pilcher, Jeffrey M. Que vivan los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican Identity. University of New Mexico Press, 1998. An excellent source for understanding Mexican cuisine.

Von Brenzen, Anya. Fiesta, a Celebration of Latin Hospitality. Double Day, 1997. Wonderful stories and recipes.

Films:

Chocolat Mirimax

Interviews:

Elena (last name withheld) "Ixtapa Grille" Mexican Family Restaurant.

Additional Resources/Readings:

Esquivel Laura, "Like Water for Chocolate", book and film.

Lourdes Diaz, Eva de. "Cultural Aspects of Spanish in America", article.

Colle Marie Pierre, Rivera, Guadalupe, "Frida's Fiestas, Recipes and Reminiscences of Life, with Frida Kahlo. Clarkson Potter Publishers

Pollwn, Michael "Omnivores Vilemma, Pinedo Encarnacion "Encarnacio's Kitchen", University of California Press.

Keble , Anthony, Connell, Tim, "In Mexico", EMC publishing.

Sheeran, Joan G., McCarthy, Patrick J. "Exploring Spanish, 2nd Edition. EMC/Paradigm Publishing.

"Spanish is Fun" Book One, Amsco.

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