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China: Soldiers, Sudoku and Stories

Barbara Natale

Contents of Curriculum Unit 07.02.02:

To Guide Entry


This unit; China: Soldiers, Soduku and Stories is for elementary school students who would like to learn about Ancient China, Terracotta Warriors, Chinese character writing and stories. This unit is targeted for grade four but can be adapted or modified for younger or older students. My unit on China is divided into four sections. Section one will address geography and China's location. My second section involves the wonderful discovery of the Terracotta Warriors and a hands-on art project. My next section addresses Chinese numbers/characters, followed by a fun activity with a Soduku puzzle. The last section involves reading selected books, discussing and writing questions generated to meet the Connecticut and New Haven Reading Department strands. At the end of this unit, my hope is to have my students develop a better understanding of Ancient China by incorporating map skills, mathematics and a fun hands-on project. Students will be encouraged to use their talents, creativity and individual input when completing their projects.

My students are going to research China and its geography on the laptop computer provided in our school. This section, "China," will be the knowledge based section about China and its land. The students are going to view various China's maps from the past and present, viewing variety geographical historical maps. Students are going to utilize a variety of ways to locate and mark China on a map. They are going to identify longitude and latitude, and label relevant landmarks such as capital, Great Wall of China, the city of Xian, where the Terracotta Soldiers were discovered, major rivers and cities. This research activity will involve the computer, library/librarian, resource books, and a large classroom poster size map of China. The information students collect about China and its geography will be placed on the poster sized map and in their own notebooks. It has been my experience that many students in the elementary grades have a difficult time locating countries on maps and even difficulty with states. Map skills will be an important focus in this section.

The second section, "Soldiers" will involve researching the Terracotta warriors from the Qin Dynasty and the historical facts about the Qin Emperor. In 1974, over eight thousand soldiers made out of terra cotta clay were discovered. Students are going to read about this amazing find and participate in an art activity making a terra cotta clay soldier of their own. I will include three varieties of Art activities so that teacher many utilize all three or choose the one best suited for their classroom facilities.

The third section entitled "Sudoku," is a Japanese numbers game but incorporating this fun activity will allow the students a different way to learn how to write them, and how to pronounce Chinese numbers. This activity is part of the math curriculum. I am going incorporate Chinese character writing in during my math block and then allow my students to practice character strokes for homework or during independent time. Students can then develop character writing skills and begin practicing speaking a different language.

The next section, "Stories" is for students' and teachers' reading enjoyment. A variety of genre in literature is critical in the elementary grades. I want to encourage my students to love to read, not just reading for information. I am going to read fiction and non-fiction text about China and its culture during guided reading, shared reading and read aloud. Two good books are: Ms. Frizzle's Adventures: Imperial China, by Joanna Cole and Bruce Degen and Tikki Tikki Tembo retold by Arlene Mosel/illustrated by Blair Lent. The book Tikki Tikki Tembo is a fun book, but it has a problem which teachers need to know before reading to the students. The name "Tikki Tikki Tembo is not Chinese, even though the introduction claims that the story is a Chinese folktale. A way to solve this problem is that I will discuss with my class authentic Chinese names and tie my comprehension question into the activity. Ms. Frizzle's Adventures: Imperial China is an accurate description of China and its culture.

My unit will address all strands that are aligned for Davis Street Interdistrict Art Magnet curriculum, along with the New Haven Public School Standards. My unit will also meet all Social Studies strands. (See Appendix 1) These strands are also State mandated and are available on the New Haven website. Comprehension questions for the books Ms. Frizzle's Adventure: Imperial China and Tikki Tikki Tembo will be aligned with the CMT strands. Most common questions will correlate to the strand the students are working on that week.

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I am a Special Education teacher, co teaching in the fourth grade with a general education teacher at Davis Street Interdistrict Art Magnet School in New Haven, Connecticut. Davis Street Interdistrict Art Magnet School is a smaller urban school. Presently a little over 400 students attend this Pre-school to fifth grade school. Demographically we are a very diverse school. A large percentage of my students are African American, but we embrace cultures from South America, Asia, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, India, Germany, Trinidad and Topanga and our own United States! We celebrate our diversity each year, usually in May with International DAY. My unit will be utilized first in my classroom during this school wide event and then the students will present their projects to the entire school during our International Day celebration. Along with International Day, my unit will tie in our school wide theme of technology, arts and multiculturalism. This means that though out the school year we incorporate technology, arts and multiculturalism in every thing we teach. We have a computer technician and weekly the students participate weekly in laptop lessons. We have an art program where the art teacher collaborates with teachers to embrace the school's social studies and science curriculum. For multiculturalism, Davis Street School celebrates International Day each year exhibiting art projects, reports on countries, music and food from around the world. During this celebration students learn about the culture, people, the land, food, language and other interesting facts about their country of study. We do this every year allowing students with the opportunity to learn about other cultures and to embrace differences. Every class chooses a different country to celebrate. Next year for International Day my class will celebrate and embrace China and its culture.

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Information on China

China today is the largest world country with population and third largest country in land size. Beijing is the capital now, but the capital has changed over the years depending on the ruler or dynasty of the time. In this section students will learn important facts about China's land, the culture, Ancient China and the Dynasties.

The Chinese word for "China" literally means Middle Country. China is located in the center of Asia. The graphic coordinates are latitude 35/00 north of the Equator and longitude 105/00 east of Greenwich. China is surrounded by Mongolia to the north, North and South Korea to the east, India to the west and Thailand with the South China Sea to the south. Other neighbors are Vietnam, Laos, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan. More than 1,287,900,000 people live in China today (www.travelchinaguide.com). That is the largest amount of people anywhere in the world. Many Chinese families have only one child to help with the control of the large population. Many Chinese do not have cars. Can you imagine if every one in China had a car? People are encouraged to walk or use a bicycle to travel around.

Two important rivers in China are the Yangtze (alternative spelling: Yangzi). It is also known as the Chang Jiang or Long River and the Huang He (also known as the Yellow River). These two rivers are very important to China's agriculture and livelihood. The Yangtze River begins near Tibet in southwestern China. It continues to flow to Shanghai on the eastern side of China. It is the third longest river in the world. It is called the long river because it flow over 3,900 miles eastward though China. This river supplies water for the farmers who grow and sell rice. In the northern part of China, the Huang He River flows from the East China Sea coast to the southwest area just before the Plateau of Tibet. The river provides water for wheat farms. There is a big water shortage in China today so this water flow is vital to the culture and food chain. The river gets its name from the yellowish loess dust that flies into the river causing flooding in many areas. Large levees were built to help with this flooding problem. Other rivers and water shape the China land form. The Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea all play a major role in China's culture. There are over five thousand islands on China's coast. The largest island is Hainan in the South China Sea. Other islands near China include Hong Kong and Taiwan. (Dalby, 2005)

Besides the rivers, seas, and islands, China has very rugged mountainous areas. About one third of China is a mountainous area. One mountain area in Tibet is the Himalayas. It is the highest peak on Earth and was formed over 55 million years ago. This snow peaked mountain range is the highest in the world. China also has a dry area in the northwest. The Taklimakan (Takla Makan) Desert is the second largest desert in the world. The Gobi Desert is also located in China, but very few people live there due to the rocky terrain. China also has forests that are home to much wild life such as monkeys, wolves, bears and the famous giant panda. (See Appendix 2)

Modern China has many large cities. The largest city is off the gulf of the Pacific Ocean. It is Shanghai; with a population of over twelve million people. The capital, Beijing (Jing) has 14,930,000 million people residing there (www.travelchinaguide.com ) or (http://en.wikipedia.org ). This is incredible considering that Beijing is only 6336 square mile area. All of China is under government control. If you lived in China you would need special permission to move from your city to another.

To really understand China and its culture, we must travel back in time to a Chinese Dynasty and Ancient Chinese way of life for Emperor Qin. A dynasty is a ruling family under an emperor. An empire could last any where from fifteen years to eight hundred years. In ancient times the people of China supported their ruler because they believed he was chosen from heaven to rule. Some dynasties lasted a shorter time because the people of China felt as if the ruler lost his heavenly power. This next section discusses the Qin Dynasty and the importance it played on today's Chinese cultural.

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Qin Emperor

QIN (Ch'in) Pronounced "chin" (221BC-206BC) The English word for China is derived from the name of this dynasty. Qin means the divine Son of Heaven. (O'Connor 2002) The emperor Qin united all of China for the first time under the Qin dynasty. Prior to his dynasty, China was divided into seven kingdoms, each with a different ruler, all fighting one another. Qin unified China by forming a system of measurement, a common system of money and unified written language. Although he accomplished these, he was considered a ruthless leader. After the emperor Qin united China, he built a line of defense against attaching nomads from the north. The Great Wall of China was built out of masonry, rock and packed earth. Armies were then stationed every several yards. Once the armies realized an attack was occurring they started a fire to signal surrounding towns and cities.

In China the wall is called "Wan-Li Chang-Cheng" which translates to 10,000 Li-Long Wall. This wall expands 2,150 miles, 15 to 30 feet wide and 25 feet tall. Yes, the Great Wall of China can be seen from Outer Space! In 1994, space Shuttle Endeavour was able to produce images of the Great Wall of China from their Space Borne Imaging Radar. Many had believed that The Great Wall could be seen from the Moon, but that was proven to be a myth! (http://www.enchantedlearning.com ) The wall was built over 2,000 years ago by laborers to not only protect China from the northern enemies but to also it keep the Chinese in China. It also symbolized the power of Emperor Qin. Although only some of stretches of the wall built at that time remain, it is still the base of the wall in China today.

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Terracotta Warrior's Tomb

Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (pronounced chin shir-hwong) had his laborers build a tomb. He had his laborers and workers make the Terracotta Warriors during his brief time as emperor. His dynasty lasted only thirteen years. To prove he was in power, he had the workers begin building the Terracotta Warriors when he was still alive. Some believe it took seven hundred thousand people to build this tomb for more then thirty years! This is not all he accomplished as ruler during this time. Later in life, at the age of forty-nine, Qin began to obsess about life and death. He had always wanted to live forever. At one time he sent expeditions to islands looking for a magic potion to grant him eternal life. He feared for his own life and it is believed that he drank a poisonous potion in the hope that it would give him eternal life. He died shortly there after from what they believe to be mercury poisoning.

In this tomb Qin had his laborers build Terracotta Warriors to surround him when he dies. Qin actually died while touring his Empire. His ministers wanted to keep his death a secret until they returned the capital city, Beijing. (O'Connor 2002)The ministers did not need to worry where to bury him because his tomb was being built for the last thirty years. His tomb was to have all the pleasures he enjoyed on earth, so it is believed he was buried with jewelry, games, chariots and silk clothing. Qin believed that his tomb might be robbed so he had his workers construct warriors with crossbows and arrows built around him to protect him and his property. (O'Connor, 2002)

For many years this tomb was only a myth, until farmers digging in the province of Xian in central China discovered the great archeological find! The myth exists! Sima Qian (145-ca. 90 BCE) wrote Records of the Grand Historian describing Emperor Qin and the Chinese culture. Qian claims that Emperor Qin ordered the workers who built the tomb be buried alive so that the location would remain a secret today (Hansen 2009). For many years archeologists worked drilling and digging to discover thousands of clay warriors. This archeological find was discovered in 1974 and has been an amazing place to visit since. It is hard to believe that three farmers looking for water during a drought would come across such an amazing find. There are three museums near Mount Li where tourist may visit to observe these soldiers. The Museum is broken into three Pits. A fourth pit was found but it is empty. To this day no human bones have been found, but the archeologists continue carefully their excavation. (O'Connor, 2002)

Pit 1: Pit 1 is about 14,000 square meters or 3.52 acres making it the largest of the three pits. Inside this pit there are over 6,000 warriors and horses. To visualize the size imagine two football fields! These Warriors are the front line of defense. If anyone came to attack Qin in the afterlife, they would be attacked by the 6,000 warriors! The Warrior's faces are facing every direction with three rows guarding the rear. Those three rows are facing so as to stop any attack from the bake.

Pit 2: Pit 2 contains 1,000 warriors, 500 horses, 350 chariot horses, and 100 cavalry horses. Pit 3 is in an L shaped four square section. Some warriors are knelling while other warriors stand behind them with crossbows.

Pit 3: Pit 3 contains 68 warriors, four horses and one chariot. This pit is unusual because there is no battle formation. Several animal bones and deer horns were also found in this pit. Archeologists think this pit may have been an army headquarters because no one is in attack mode. (O'Connor, 2002) (www.travelchinaguide.com/attraction/shaanxi/xian/terra_cotta_army/)

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Terracotta Warrior's Statues

Each of the soldiers has its own personal characteristics. They are life size, most being six feet tall. The soldiers have different facial expressions, different hair style and are even different in age! There has been much speculation on how the soldiers were made. Many laborers had to be recruited, housed and fed. Once the laborers were found, foreman and workers would begin by producing one part such as the leg, feet, torso, arms, hand and head. Once each section was made, the assembly began; making sure no two soldiers were the same. It is believed that 700 figures were made in one year. Each soldier is made out of painted clay. The supplies had to be made available at all times. Each figure was then assembled and held together with clay to form a basic figure. This is similar to an assembly line. Later other laborers added additional clay to shape the face; individual facial features were added such as eyebrows, ears and lips. Finally the soldiers clothing and weapons were formed in a mold and placed on the soldier with clay. The final soldier clay model was placed on a horse also made of clay and wood mixture, on a chariot or left standing to project Emperor Qin from his enemies. The swords and weapons that the warriors are holding are made of a combination of metal mixture and are so sharp; they could be utilized as a weapon today! There were over 10,000 weapons found at this time. The weapons found were swords, daggers, billhooks, spears, halberds, axes, crossbows, triggers, and arrowheads. (See Appendix 3 for a activity on weapons) http://www.archaeology.about.com/od/china/a/terracotta.htm Many soldiers, horses and weapons have been destroyed over the years due to armies damaging them shortly after their creation, poor weather conditions and the collapses of the roof over time. As of now the Emperor Qin's pit has not been excavated. It is a very delicate procedure and archeologists want to preserve every piece of the pit. Many of the warriors, weapons and horses have been crushed or damaged. This could be from warring states many years ago and excavation. (www.chinamuseums.com)

Classroom Activity One: China

This activity will answer the question: Where is China?


At the end of this section "China" students will recognize China on a map, label important areas and identify capital, rivers, and land surrounding China. As the students learn about China, they will use a colored push pin and identify the area discussed.


1. Students will research China's geography from internet resources, classroom books and books from library.
2. Students will work in pairs identifying places (areas listed below) found in China today.
3. Each student will receive their own map to label.
4. Students will participate in a whole class lesson with large poster size map
5. After each area on the poster board is labeled, students will label and color their own map, to be utilized on the information board during International Day.

Pencil, crayons, or colored markers list of places to label, push pins, map of Asia/China on a large poster board with cardboard underneath for push pins to enter.

Areas to label on the Map:

Beijing, Great Wall of China, Himalayas, Yangtze River, Huang He River, Taklimakan Desert, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Laos, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Thailand, North and South Korea, Mongolia, Pacific Ocean, South China Sea, Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, Silk Roads, Terracotta Pit and five other cities of their choice.

Map activity:

A recommended website where students can find a map, land information and surrounding counties is found on www.travelchinaguide.com . Here students can visualize areas of importance: land structure, geography, rivers, mountains and cities discussed in the next section.

Classroom Activity Two: Soldiers

This activity will answer the question: How were the Soldiers made?


At the end of this section "Soldiers" students will view pictures of the Terracotta Warriors and then produce their own small replica.


- Students will research Terracotta Warriors from internet resources, classroom books and books from library and produce their own replica. In an assembly line manner, students will build their own Warrior!


Crayola Quick dry clay, tooth picks, card stock,


1. Students will sketch a draft of their warrior's body by looking at pictures.
2. Each student will make two legs, two arms and one head out of quick dry crayola clay.
3. Students will break tooth picks in half and place in legs and arms as an anchor.
4. Using the card stock students will cut out a center body shape.
5. Allow the legs, arms and head to dry over night.
6. Put the entire classes' legs, arms and heads on a table and allow each student to select two legs, two arms and one head. Encourage them not to take their own if they identify them.
7. Use the body card stock and push the tooth picks in at the correct location. Students will verbally share with the class their figure.
For the younger students a mask can be made with paper bags or paper plates.

Classroom Activity Three: Sudoku

This Activity will answer the question: How do we write Chinese characters/numbers?

Background information:

Mandarin Chinese is a language that is spoken by over 2/3 of the Chinese population mostly living in central and north China. (www.britannica.com) Mandarin Chinese is the largest number of native speakers of any language in the world. Over 885,000,000 people speak this language. Chinese character writing is unique and very interesting for the children of all ages. Chinese writing dates back to 1200 BC. Chinese characters represent a syllable of the spoken language. Originally the characters were pictures of the people or objects. Over time the characters came to resemble the object but indicate pronunciation and meaning. Knowledge of 3,000 characters will allow you to read most of Chinese literature, such as a book or the newspaper. There are about 56,000 characters or more! Chinese characters include twelve basic strokes from top to bottom and left to right and are in a very systematic order. Some characters consist of one stroke, such as the number one, twenty-five for the word school, and many more strokes for some words. (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/chinese.htm) I will have my student type in a few words on the computer and let them see and hear the pronunciation at the above website. When writing numbers, other countries such as Japan and Korea, also utilize the stroke order. As the children learn to write these Chinese numbers they will also learn how to write them in two other languages! Students can research Chinese character writing or go to the website http://www.xuezhongwen.net/chindict/chindict.php?page=main. to find the words and practice their character strokes.

When writing numbers, other countries such as Japan and Korea, also utilize the same pattern. As the children learn to write these Chinese numbers they will also learn how to write in two other languages! Students can research Chinese character writing or go to the website http://www.xuezhongwen.net/chindict/chindict.php?page=main. to find words and practice their character strokes.

Although Soduku is a Japanese puzzle game, students will enjoy this activity to practice their knowledge of Chinese numbers. The Japanese borrowed thousands of Chinese Characters. This includes the numbers one to ten. Soduku is the systematic use of numbers one though nine to form smaller squares in larger squares. Soduku means," the digit must remain single". Soduku can be spelled "Suduku", "Sudoku" and "Sodoku" and it is suggested that students can go on line to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudoku or in some local newspapers, to practice prior to using Chinese characters. Students will fill in missing numbers so that:

1. Each row contains digits one through nine (1-9).
2. Each column contains digits one through nine.
3. Every small square contains the digit one through nine.
4. Every big square contains the digits one through nine.

At the end of this section "Soduku", students will learn character writing and their pronunciation for numbers one though nine and utilize them in a math puzzle.


1. Students will research character number writing on the website: www.xuezhongwen.net/chindict. or www.omniglot.com.
2. Students will practice saying and writing the numbers following the pattern of left to right and top to bottom.
3. Each student will practice Soduku puzzle making with Standard English numbers to gain knowledge of the game.
4. Students will make their own puzzle following the pattern or go online to http://www.enchantedlearning.com/school/China/numbers/index.shtml. This site does have a membership fee. However, some worksheets are free to view. Note: the membership is worth the price.
5. Alternative activity could have the students make their own puzzle using two or three Chinese numbers in each small square and the exchanging their puzzle with their partner's puzzle.
Numbers: Students should practice the numbers several times on paper prior to filling in the Soduku game.

(table available in print form)

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Chinese Character Writing: Numbers pronunciation

Although the number ten is not used in the Soduku puzzle, students will learn how to pronounce and make the Chinese character as part of the math lesson.

Sample of Soduku puzzle:

(table available in print form)

Classroom Activity Four: Stories

This activity will answer the question: What can we learn about China from stories?


At the end of this section "Stories" students will read Ms. Frizzle's Adventures: Imperial China or Tikki Tikki Tembo by Arlene Mosel, write a summary and/or answer questions.


1. Teacher will read orally to students during shared reading/whole group reading Ms. Frizzle's Adventures: Imperial China by Joanna Cole and Tikki Tikki Tembo by Arlene Mosel.
2. Students will participate in oral discussion about characters, setting, events and conclusion completing graphic organizer selected by the teacher.
3. Teacher will model one selected question with the entire class.
4. Students will write summary of the story and answer selected questions generated by the teacher to meet the New Haven Language Arts Standards.

One copy of Ms. Frizzle's Adventures: Imperial China, or Tikki Tikki Tembo book, paper, pencil, copy of real Chinese names.

Real Chinese names: http://www.mandarintools.com/chinesename.html. Students can write their name and the view in Chinese.

Chen, Lin, Huang, Li, Zhang, Wang, Wu, Liu and Tsai just to list a few.

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Synopsis of Ms. Frizzle's Adventure: Imperial China

Ms. Frizzle, the wonderful teacher who takes her students on a magic school bus adventure, takes two of her students on a trip though Chinatown. Of course they magically travel to China to observe the land, inventions and food. The students learn very interesting facts about China. Students will find that China was the first to invent the kite 2,400 years ago and how to grow rice!

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Synopsis of Tikki Tikki Tembo

Tikki tikki tembo-no sa rembo-chari bari ruchi-pip peri pembo is the long name for Tikki Tikki Tembo. This is a famous story in elementary schools. Arlene Mosel claims that she retells an old Chinese folktale about how the people of China came to give their children short names after traditionally giving their "first and honored" sons grand, long names. In fact though, Tikki Tikki Tembo is not a Chinese name. An example of a Chinese name would be Chen, Jong, Lin, Huang, Zhang, Liu or Tzai; just to name a few. It is important for the students to realize the story is fiction. Tikki Tikki Tembo (which means "the most wonderful thing in the whole wide world") and his brother Chang (which means "little or nothing") get into trouble when one of them falls into a well. They are saved by the Old Man with the Ladder.


New Haven Strands are listed in Appendix 1. Some strands are listed below and questions that the teacher might ask.

- Students will select and use relevant information from the text in order to summarize events and/or ideas in the text. (A3)

- Chose an invention from China and explain why it is important to the world.
- Use stated or implied evidence from the text to draw and/or support a conclusion. (B3)

- Why do you think the Emperors were the only ones allowed to wear yellow?
- Select, synthesis and/or use relevant information within a written work to write a personal response to the text. (C2)

- Have you ever wanted to go to China? Write about why or why not.
- Demonstrate an awareness of an author's or character's customs and beliefs included in the text. (D3)

- Do you think the author actually went to China? Why or why not?
Appendix 1


1. Identify the main idea in a source of historical information.
2. Read, view and listen to multiple sources that reflect the diversity of culture.
3. Construct a model or map of a region.
4. Read, view and listen to multiple sources concerning history.
5. Students will demonstrate strategic writing skills before, during and after writing.
6. Students will demonstrate strategic reading skills before, during and after reading.
7. Utilize resources to expand understanding (computer).
Language Arts Strands

A. Forming a General Understanding

- To select and use relevant information from the text in order to summarize events and ideas
- To use information from the text to make a prediction
- To use context clues to determine meaning of unknown
B. Developing an Interpretation

C. To identify or infer the author's use of structure

- To use state or implied evidence from the text to draw a conclusion
D. Connecting and Responding

- To make connections between text and personal experiences
- To select, synthesize and use relevant information to write a personal response
E. Connecting Structure and Content

- To analyze and evaluate the author's craft including literary devices
- To select, synthesis, and relevant information within a written work to extend or evaluate work
- Demonstrate an awareness of the author's customs and beliefs included in text
Appendix 2

Panda Activity: The students that are interested in animals may research and write a report about Pandas and why they are an endangered species. A recommended site for students to review through the computer is http://www.imax.com/chinapanda/ .

Appendix 3

Weapon Activity: Students who are interested in identifying the weapons mentioned above can search images on www.ask.com/images or www.aol.com/images to look for pictures comparing the weapons and discussing what they might be used for as a means of protection in Ancient China.

Appendix 4

Confucius Back ground: CONFUCIUS (551 BC-479 BC) Confucius's real name was Kong Qiu/Kung Fuzi. He lived in China and was a teacher. Confucius became a teacher and traveled from town to town to teach people his philosophy. He believed all people should obey their parents and perform rituals correctly.

Confucius Activity: Students may want to research several different "Confucius says" statements such as: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand" to discuss what they mean and their own interpretation. An accurate translation can be found on Http://www.4literature.net/confucius/Analects/.

Appendix 5

Marco Polo Activity: Students may want to learn the Marco Polo water game. Although there might not be a swimming pool in every school, this activity can also be utilized in the playground area, ideally in a small fenced in area. Three or more students are needed to play this game with one person as "It". That person has their eyes closed and yells out "Marco". The others answer "Polo". The "It" person has to swim or run to tag the student and say "Polo." The person tagged then becomes "It".

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Bibliography of sited material

Dalby, Elizabeth The Usborne Internet-Linked Introduction to Asia, New York, Scholastic, 2005

Hansen, Valerie Voyages in World History, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, forthcoming 2009

O'Connor, Jane The Emperor's Silent Army: Terracotta Warriors of Ancient China, New York, Viking, 2002

www.archaeology.about.com/od/china/a/terracotta.htm Good pictures.

www.britannica.com Teacher material.

www.chinamuseums.com Teacher material.

www.en.wikipedia.org/china Teacher material.

www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sudoku Teacher material.

www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/terracotta_army Teacher material and some pictures for students.

www.enchantedlearning.com Teacher's can subscribe website, but some free worksheets and student projects.

www.mandarintools.com/chinesename.html Excellent for mandarin Chinese language activity.

www.omniglot.com Excellent source.

www.travelchinaguide.com The best information about Ancient China and travel.

www.xuezhongwen.net/chindict A very good website.

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Teacher and student resources

Cole, Joanna, Degen, Bruce. Ms. Frizzle's Adventures: Imperial China. New York: Scholastic Press, 2005. This book is in hard copy only, but worth the cost.

Cotterell, Arthur. Ancient China. (Eyewitness Books Series). New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 2005. Best for children to understand the basic facts.

Debaine-Francfort,Corinne. Search for Ancient China. New York: HNA Books, 1999. Can be used for both teacher and student.

Di Cosmo, Nicola. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Great resource for teacher information.

Fairbank, John King, Goldman, Merle. China: A New History. New York: Harvard University Press, 2005. Updated facts about China's history.

Fisher,Leonard. The Great Wall of China. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. Great pictures and visuals.

Fitzgerald, C.P. Ancient China. New York: ibooks, Inc., 2006. Good information about Ancient China.

Harvey, Miles. Look What Came from China. New York: Scholastic Library Publishing, 1999. Interesting facts about inventions from China.

Ledderose, Lothat. Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in China Art. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2000. Great for the Terracotta Soldier section with good pictures for students.

Mosel,Arlene. Tikki Tikki Tembo. New York: Harry Holt and Company, Scholastic, 1968. Retold fictional children's book.

Scher, Linda. Ancient China: Kids Discover. New York: Scholastic, 1997. Great snapshot of Ancient China with great pictures.

Shaughnessy, Edward. Ancient China. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2006. Good resource with nice pictures.

These websites are recommended and are very informative for teachers and students.



www.ask.com/images http://www.bmy.com




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