Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home

Advertising for Healthy Habits

by
Sara E. Thomas


Contents of Curriculum Unit 07.05.01:

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Introduction

I teach visual art at a magnet high school in New Haven. Our student population is extremely diverse - two thirds of the students come from New Haven, one-third of the students come from surrounding suburbs. Besides being geographically diverse the students are also socio-economically diverse, as well as racially diverse. This diversity of students means that they walk into my art room with a variety of different skills and prior art knowledge.

One class where almost all students start on the same playing field, regardless of their previous schooling, is Digital Art. Because most of the technology is so new many students have not used the computer as an art medium, and a very few have used simple programs such as Paint. Digital Art is a course where students are introduced to the basic principles of design, manipulating images using Photoshop and experiencing the process a Graphic Designer goes through when designing a variety of different products. This unit will have students assume the role of a Graphic Designer who has been given a project by client who is very concerned with the health of high school students. The client would like to create three different public service announcements, in the form of posters, regarding three different issues: smoking, body image and nutrition. Students will go through the processes used by a graphic designer - first researching and collecting as much information as they can about each issue. Then they will brainstorm, do thumbnail sketches, roughs, and finally will create eye-catching posters to alert their peers of these health issues.

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Rationale

Although there is an overwhelming amount of literature already accessible about smoking I still have a large portion of students who can be found in the mornings just off school grounds inhaling their morning dose of nicotine, or trying to sneak out in the middle of the day for a cigarette break. I would like students to understand how smoking affects their lungs, the long term effects of smoking and how quitting can be beneficial. I think representing this visually will be extremely effective. Students will create posters about one of these aspects of smoking.

Body image is also extremely important to my students. I often hear comments such as, "I need to eat, I want to be thicker," or "I'm too fat. I'm going on a diet." I would like to take this opportunity to talk to my students about the definition of both the word "healthy" and the word "beautiful" as they relate to the human body. As a class we will look at all of the media that influence our definition of beauty, and students will then create posters expressing a healthy body image.

Nutrition is another important topic for my students. Many of them are unhappy with the choices they are being given in the cafeteria for lunch. Many of them do not eat breakfast and refuse to eat lunch in our cafeteria, meaning although they wake up at six in the morning they do not put any nourishment into their bodies until around three in the afternoon when they get home from school. That is nine hours of asking their bodies and brains to perform without needed energy. I would like students to realize how eating patterns like this can be both unhealthy and detrimental to their performance at school. Students will create posters to promote healthy eating habits.

Information about smoking, body image and nutrition is not only important to the students in my digital art class, but to the students throughout my entire school. Health is an area where my students are lacking information. They receive some information regarding health during their freshman year, but after that unless they have a health class they are not exposed to it for the rest of their high school careers. As an educator this worries me greatly. Students need to be made aware that the decisions and the lifestyle choices they make now can have a drastic effect on their health in the future.

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Becoming a Graphic Designer

For each of the three topics students will be designing and presenting a public service poster. At the end of the project students will vote on each individual's best poster and each student will have one poster printed and hung in the school. I would like students to go through the process of becoming a graphic designer and therefore will set this assignment up as though they are working for a company which is interested in producing posters to raise awareness about health issues in schools across the country.

The first step in working on a design project is to meet with the client to determine the client's needs. I will have students brainstorm a list of questions, which they would prepare before meeting with the client; the answers to these questions will generate a specification sheet about the project. Once students have generated questions to ask the client I will provide them with a specifications sheet for the company (Appendix A). The company will be a branch of the Center for Disease Control, and will be working on an outreach program for both middle school students and high school students. They are looking to produce a series of 24" x 36" full color posters persuading students to make healthy choices about smoking, body image and nutrition. The company is looking for dynamic and eye-catching posters, which will appeal to teenagers and catch their interest. The company wants new and innovative ideas to spice up the line of public service posters they already have.

After meeting with the client the designer needs to determine the demographic of the target audience, which for this project has been given to the students by the client. They are interested in targeting middle and high school students. Next the designer needs to research the types of ads that are effective in reaching the target audience. As a class we will discuss which print ads and television commercials have actually left an impact on them, since they are a part of the target audience. There are usually three main categories of ads that impact high school students: humor (for instance Geico ads), stark truth - bold facts that are well articulated (for instance truth.com ads), or flashy visually altered ads (this will be easy to achieve with Photoshop). We will watch commercials and look at a variety of print ads that students think would be effective to their peers, and will pinpoint what makes them successful. I have cited a few specific examples of smoking ads, Dove ads and Special K ads later in my unit.

Once the target audience is determined and researched, students will begin the brainstorming process. I will use smoking as an example to outline this process. In order to get students into the mindset of smokers I would like them to brainstorm a list of at least fifty words, which come to mind when they think about smoking. I would then like them to choose the top fifteen words from their list, and make a list of ten words for each of those fifteen. This process of brainstorming usually gets your brain to begin thinking outside of the box. For instance we will have discussed tar and how it affects your lungs - if tar were in a student's list of top fifteen words they might then have road, pavement, truck, etc. in their list of ten words for tar. A very effective ad could show a truck pouring tar directly into a smoker's mouth, or paving the inside of their lungs. By the time they are completing this assignment students will have the Photoshop skills to easily create such an ad with the appropriate photographs.

Once students have finished brainstorming their lists they will create thumbnail sketches for five different posters. A thumbnail sketch is a small rough draft, which includes a rough sketch of the images and blocks in any text that will be used in approximately the correct size. Students will choose their favorite three thumbnails and create roughs on the computer from their thumbnails.

Once students have completed three roughs they will complete a peer critique where each student will look at the roughs of two other students. I think that doing peer critiques in an art class is extremely important for two reasons. The first reason is that it is important to get feedback from more than one person - as the teacher I am constantly in communication with the students about their ideas, however I am only one brain and cannot always come up with the best ideas. Also, I find that students are each other's best critics, and offer extremely helpful suggestions. Third, peer evaluations require that all students develop critical thinking skills, articulate their criticisms, and learn about the projects of their peers (or something like this). Before we begin the critique I always have a discussion with the students to clarify the purpose of the critique. First they should be stating specifically what they like about the artwork. Then they should be offering helpful, specific suggestions to improve the artwork. It is important that the suggestions be specific because students often want to say, "I like it" without elaborating or really giving constructive information. It is also important that they not be negative, but instead offer specific advice to improve a work.

By the end of this unit each student should have three rough drafts for each topic: smoking, nutrition and body image. As a class we will then vote, choosing the most successful out of each student's nine roughs, to determine which posters will be printed, laminated and hung around the school.

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Smoking

Smoking is an addiction that affects more than one in every five Americans, including over twenty-two percent of high school students. (CDC) Nicotine is the addictive part of the cigarette; it is found in the leaves of the tobacco plant. Ingesting just a thimble full of nicotine would kill a person instantly. (Pringle 30) Smoking is the preferred method of getting nicotine to the body because the nicotine reaches the brain more quickly through oxygen than through blood. (Pringle 20) Smoke is inhaled through a cigarette into the lungs. In order to understand the effect of smoking on the body we must understand how the lungs work.

Air enters the body through the trachea, which splits into the left and right bronchi each going to a separate lung. Each bronchi continues to split. The first sixteen splits and branches are referred to as the conducting airways. (Saltzman 12) These branches are responsible for simply transporting air into the body. After the first sixteen splits the bronchi continue splitting and at the end of each are alveoli, which increase the surface area of the lung. This allows more oxygen to get into the body through the lungs. The alveoli are covered in capillaries that collect the oxygen out of the air flowing through the lungs. Our bodies need oxygen because we need it to create convert our food into energy efficiently. (Newhaus 38)

Students will create a working model of a lung so that they understand how the body intakes air, what the lungs do with the air, and how the lungs output air. They will create the model by doing an inquiry lab. After we have had some class discussion about how a lung is constructed students will be given the following supplies: tape, garbage bags, balloons, a 2-liter soda bottle and a small piece of clay. Using these supplies and the information they have learned, students will need to determine the best way to create a functioning model of a lung.

The lungs are elastic and are constantly pulling inward, threatening collapse. The balloon will symbolize the lung in the students' models. (Saltzman 14) The lungs are attached to the chest wall, which is constantly pulling outward. The top half of the two-liter soda bottle will act as the chest cavity. The balloon will be attached to the mouth of the soda bottle (inside it). When we inhale oxygen is drawn into our lungs because there is a lower pressure created in our lungs and gases travel to areas of lower pressure. This is also how smoke is inhaled into the lungs through the cigarette. A piece of the garbage bag will get taped around the bottom, where the soda bottle has been cut. This will act as the diaphragm, changing the pressure both inside and outside of the lung. When you pull down on the garbage bag the balloon will inflate. This demonstrates to students the work their body is doing every time they breathe in, without even thinking about it. The average person breathes about fourteen times per minute. (Newhaus 40)

Smoking does a variety of things which make breathing much more difficult. I would like students to brainstorm a list of all the diseases and health problems they think may be caused by smoking. We will record these reasons on a chart and students will research what health problems and diseases smoking is actually linked to.

Each bronchial tube is lined with cilia, small hair-like projections that move around mucous within the lungs. The mucous captures bacteria, which could be harmful to our lungs, and does not allow it into our bodies. Cigarette smoke kills the cilia allowing mucous to build up in the lungs, making them a breeding ground for bacteria. This is a precursor to emphysema, a lifelong condition which affects the lungs. Cigarette smoke also damages the alveoli, which means with every breath you inhale your body is getting less oxygen, but it is still using the same amount of oxygen. In turn your body needs to start working harder in order to get the amount of oxygen in needs to function correctly. This places more stress on your heart as well as your lungs. Therefore a long-term effect of smoking is heart disease. Smoking is also linked to lung cancer, where cancer cells attack other healthy cells. (Newhaus 40)

Equally deadly is what happens when the chemicals in the cigarette are burned. They create tar, which coats the lungs and alveoli allowing less oxygen into the body. The burning also creates carbon monoxide, which is extremely detrimental to the body. Normally when air passes through the alveoli it bonds to a cell called hemoglobin which carries the oxygen throughout the body. Carbon monoxide also bonds well to hemoglobin, and therefore, when smoking, even less oxygen is getting through because the hemoglobin is being occupied by carbon monoxide instead. (Pringle 30)

Students will watch a demonstration of another their model lung "smoking a cigarette". A piece of cotton will be placed into an empty water bottle. A cut piece of coffee filter will be placed over the top of the bottle and attached on the outside with an elastic band. This will also collect what would normally be collected in the lung. Then the top of the bottle will be sealed with clay, and a cigarette will be stuck into the opening. The teacher will light the cigarette and simulate breathing by squeezing the water bottle. The water bottle will "breathe" in the smoke, which will collect in the bottle. Once the "lung" has smoked the entire cigarette let the bottle sit and the smoke settle for about twenty minutes. The teacher can then show students all of the gunk which has collected in the coffee filter, as well as stained the bottle and the cotton ball. Lastly, the teacher can make students aware of the smell coming out of the bottle once it is opened. This will give students a full sensory demonstration of what exactly smokers are doing to their lungs.

Once we have watched a fake lung smoke a cigarette I would like students to look at pictures of a healthy lung versus a smoker's lungs. I would like them to compare and contrast the two lungs and discuss how these two images might be effective in creating a poster. There is a wonderful image in Pringle's book on page 43 which asks, "If what happened on your inside happened on your outside, would you still smoke?" and shows a girl's face dying like a smokers lung. I think this will be a very effective first ad to have students looking at as an introduction to juxtaposition. Juxtaposition, or combining two images together, in this case a visual before and after like the girl's face, can produce a powerful message.

All of these are wonderful reasons not to start smoking, but then why do people begin? I will ask the students how many of them have tried smoking; I expect most of the class to have tried smoking. I would also like to know how many of them are regular smokers. I'd like all of them to think back to when they first tried smoking what was their body's reaction to it? Does the reaction sound like a reaction to a healthy substance? I'd like to engage students in a conversation about why they tried or started smoking. There are many reasons people begin smoking - peer pressure, family history, social acceptance, etc.

Since the early 1900s people were under the impression that smoking was healthy. The tobacco companies have always been promoting the message, "It's cool to smoke!" In the 1950s sports stars, actors and even doctors promoted smoking. Any magazines from this time period will boast these types of cigarette ads. I plan to use ads from old issues of Popular Mechanic and Time. Soon after women became a target of cigarette ads, for instance Virginia Slims were targeted directly at women. Tobacco companies paid for more spots and commercials showing smoking as the cool thing to do. Around 1964 people began to realize the long-term effects smoking was having. In 1965 tobacco companies had to begin putting a "Caution: Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health" label on every pack. (Pringle 37) In 1971 the warnings also had to be present in print ads; radio and television ads were banned. For homework, I would like students to create a list of all of the places they still encounter smoking ads today. The posters that they will be creating are going to be going against years of advertising that has become ingrained in American culture.

Students will compare cigarette ads from previous generations to those of today. They will research reasons that people start smoking, and will research which groups of people are most likely to begin smoking. By looking at ads students will begin to collect ideas about design, and visual representation of smokers. Pages 41 and 108 of Pringle's book have very effective ads against smoking. One shows a dog smoking a cigarette; the second is a series of posters with cigarette brands replaced with phrases such as "Phlegm Balls" and "Money Suckers". This is where I would like students to begin thinking like graphic designers. I have detailed this process more explicitly in the section called Becoming a Graphic Designer in the beginning. There are a variety of methods that designers use to get across a message visually, and here are a few good examples. First the dog smoking just looks silly - it catches our attention because of how ridiculous it looks. Renaming a product, or adding slogan to convey the message can be a helpful tool.

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Body Image

Students will look at a variety of images expressing the idea of "beautiful" at the time they were created. We will look at how the depiction of the figure has changed throughout the years in artwork. I will try to show students a depiction of both a male and a female figure wherever possible. We will compare and contrast the following images (many of these images contain nude figures): The first images will be Greek sculptures from around 400BC. The male figure will be Discobolos by Myron, and the female image will be Aphrodite of Knidos by Paxitelles. Each of these sculptures shows a very hearty, muscular figure - the figures of the time period and the idea of beauty were modeled after Greek gods. Next we will take a large jump in time to 1500 to look at Leonardo da Vinci's Vetruvian Man for the male and Leda and the Swan for the female. The male figure still looks very muscular and similar to the Greek idea of a male, while the female looks very round and curvy, much less muscular than the Greek statue. Next we will look at Suerat's The Models from 1887. These figures are still fairy curvy, but look like average women. Then we will look at where the figure in art starts to take a turn towards slender and emaciated in Giacometti's figural sculptures and Modigliani's elongated paintings from 1948 and 1918 respectively. We will also look at Botero's overly round figures. Lastly, we will look at images from magazines today. It is interesting to note how the ideal male figure has changed very little over time, while the ideal female figure has gone through many changes.

After students have compared all of these different images throughout the ages I would like them to begin brainstorming where our idea of "beauty" comes from. Using the information on the Media Awareness Network website students will look through magazines which they would normally read and graph the frequency of "skinny" models, "average" models and "large" models. Students will also be given this as a homework assignment to chart the same information for television shows they watch throughout the week. Students will use this data later to begin formulating their posters. We will then have a discussion about what "beauty" means, and how the definition of beautiful can be different for different cultures.

After we have discussed beauty we will again look at our examples of figures throughout the ages and rate them by "healthiest" looking to "least healthy" looking, citing examples as to why. We will discuss what a "healthy" body looks like - I would like to ask leading questions so that students recognize that both the extremely thin figures and also the extremely large figures are both unhealthy. I would also like them to notice that some muscle definition is healthy, in order to recognize that being active is important.

Next students will take part in determining what healthy is for themselves personally. Students will take part in determining their body mass index (BMI). The website http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/ contains BMI calculators for both adults and teens. Your BMI is determined using your height and weight. It gives you the range of body fat which is acceptable for your height and weight. If your BMI is below 18.5 then you are underweight. A normal BMI is between 18.5 and 24.9 for an adult, and a BMI above 24.9 is overweight. The teen calculator has slightly more complex calculations, and is different for boys and girls. It will calculate a BMI for anyone between the ages of two and twenty. I would like to have my students determine their own BMI. Once students have this information we will discuss how each of the images we are looking at meets the criteria of being healthy, and how and why the BMI is a better determinate of a healthy body than simply your weight. We will discuss how depriving your body of the nutrients it needs can be fatal, while giving it too much can also have the same effect.

Once students have defined both "healthy" and "beautiful" they will need to begin to formulate ideas for posters about promoting a healthy body image. We will look at examples of two companies that have tried to do this - Dove and Special K.

The Dove Beauty campaign contains models of a variety of different shapes and sizes, with the slogan "real beauty" next to them. We will watch the short film Evolution which tracks a model being made-up, photographed and then completely altered in Photoshop before she is added to a billboard ad. We will talk about the way that technology has changed, and how it has affected the way we can manipulate images. This movie clip is extremely fitting for this course because students will be able to make the same manipulations they see in the short film to their own faces. I will discuss the ethics of this process with the students as well.

Students will also be looking at a series of Special K print ads from the website http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/lessons/secondary/advertising_marketing/special_k.cfm. One ad shows a model in a bathing suit next to an overweight man and states, "Ironically, she's the one who's worried about her weight." Another says, "If only designers had to live up to the same standards they've set for us," and shows a male designer stuffed into a very small outfit. I would like students to discuss the effectiveness of these ads, with special attention to the focus audience. The smoking ads we looked at previously are targeted at a very large audience - anyone who might be tempted to pick up a cigarette. The Dove and Special K ads, on the other hand, have a very specific target audience. Determining the target audience of an ad campaign and deciding what types of images will appeal to them is a very important part of being a graphic designer. Trying to sell something to teenage girls versus grandmothers will boast two drastically different campaign strategies. We will use this as an example to discuss the target audience for the public service announcements that my students will be creating. We will talk about what types of ads might better impact teenagers.

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Nutrition

Nutrition is also a very important part of a healthy lifestyle, and many of my students do not make healthy choices when eating. "We eat to obtain two things: materials and energy," (Eagles 9). My students know that when they are hungry they need to eat, however they do not understand the correlation between the food they put into their bodies and their body's ability to function properly. I have students who wake up at six o'clock in the morning and come to school without eating breakfast. Then they will skip lunch, even those who qualify for free or reduced lunch. They usually skip lunch because they are unhappy with the school's selection or some instead of skipping lunch will opt for unhealthy alternatives such as candy bars or Cheetos. I would like students to understand exactly what their body needs to be ingesting, what their body does with what they've ingested, and how the can start making choices for a healthy lifestyle. I would like to begin by having students record what they eat for an entire week. Then I would like them to hypothesize the amounts of each type of food their body needs to survive.

Before we begin talking about the nutrients the body needs to function I would like students to record their diet for an entire week. I would like them to write down everything they eat each day and approximately what time they consume it. I would like students to begin keeping this journal so that they become conscious of what types of food they are ingesting. Once students have completed this journal we will discuss the different food groups. The class will be broken up into small groups and each group will research a specific food group. Students will determine these things about the food group they are assigned:

1. Why does the body need it?
2. How does the body use it?
3. What is the recommended daily amount of it?
4. What foods are included in it?
5. What happens if you eat too much of it?
6. What happens if you eat too little of it/

The body needs each of the following foods to survive: carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fiber. Each food provides the body with a different building block that it requires to operate and function.

Carbohydrates come from starches and sugars. They are easy for the body to break down and absorb and are a quick source of energy. Breads and pastas are examples of starch, while fruits are examples of sugar. Cells use glucose, which comes from carbohydrates, as their main source of energy to operate, maintain and repair cells. If the body gets too many carbohydrates it stores the extras as fat.

The body needs protein for growing, repairing and building. Protein comes from foods such as fish, meat, eggs, beans and nuts. Proteins are very important in building muscle as well. This is an extremely important food group for children, teenagers and expectant mothers because they are all nurturing a still growing body.

Fats are another important part of your diet, although like everything they need to be ingested in appropriate amounts. Dairy and meat products are a good source of fat. Your body uses fat for warmth and protection, and also as a means of storing energy incase there comes a time when you cannot eat for a while. If your body stores too much fat it can become a problem because your heart has to work harder in order to run your entire body.

Vitamins help other nutrients do their jobs and can be found in a variety of foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Minerals are also important; they come from the soil and are passed onto us by plants. Doctors are still unsure of the recommended doses for many vitamins and minerals, however they do know the minimum amount of these that your body needs in order to avoid getting sick.

Your body needs also fiber. Fiber is extra bulk, which helps carry unused food out of the body. Lastly, and most importantly, your body needs lots of water Your body is more than half water which you are constantly using to help aid in digestion, help cool by sweating, etc. Your body can only survive for about 3 days without water.

All of these items are important for maintaining a health lifestyle. The food pyramid was just recently redesigned in order to better suit the needs of the American public. One thing to be careful of is the amount of processed food you are eating. Our food now has many preservatives and chemicals added to it, many crops have pesticides added to them and many animals are given hormones. We have very little knowledge about the long-term effects of how most of these chemicals affect our bodies. If possible you should try to eat as many fresh, unaltered fruits, vegetables and meat as possible.

The new food pyramid at www.mypyramid.gov will tailor a specific diet for you based on your height, weight, gender and level of daily activity. It will also give you more detailed lists of foods under each category and provide you with helpful tips about choosing foods from each category.

I will have students look back to their food journal that they created. We will talk about what types of foods are healthy - ones which your body can digest easily and receives lots of useful nourishment from. These will be green foods. We will talk about foods that your body receives no nourishment from; these will be red foods. Foods that fall in between will be yellow foods. Students will then color code their food journal to see how much good food they are actually ingesting in one week. Next, I would like students to look at both a school lunch and breakfast to see where they breakdown into these categories. How do they fall into red, yellow and green foods, and where are they on the food pyramid?

I would like students to look at print ads and television commercials targeted at children. Almost all of these ads include a cartoon spokesperson, catchy jingle, or a game to lure children into making unhealthy choices. Think about Lucky Charms, Trix and Rice Crispies. What do you actually remember about the cereal? I'd imagine your remember very little except the cartoon characters urging you to eat each of these cereals all of which are high in sugar. I would like students again in groups to focus on six of these different foods and determine what exactly the food is made out of, how much nutrition is contains, where it would fall on the food pyramid and where it would fall in our red, yellow, green coding system. Some foods to choose from are: Rice Krispies, Pop Tarts, Fruit Loops, etc. I would also like students to compare this type of marketing with how Joe Camel was used to sell cigarettes to youngsters. I would like students to discuss whether or not they feel this is ethical?

Just this June Kellogg is taking steps to stop marketing "unhealthy" foods to children ages twelve and under, although the changes did not come about without the threat of a lawsuit first. There are a variety of articles about this topic at http://www.frankwbaker.com/kelloggs_ads.htm. I would like my students to read these articles and begin brainstorming ads which might show visually why these foods should not be marketed to children. For instance, actually measuring out the amount of sugar in a bowl of Trix and having one child eating Trix and the other eating a breakdown of the chemicals and sugar Trix is made out of.

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Assessment

I assess my students in a variety of different ways and think that using rubrics is extremely important, especially since art is such an objective subject to grade. I can look at ads and easily tell which ones are more effective, but I must have specific criteria to grade student artwork. For this project students will have a list of criteria when they begin. They will receive a checklist listing each part of the process outlined above: target audience research, brainstorming, thumbnails, roughs, peer critiques and a final copy.

I give students a daily participation grade, and will also be giving them short skill building assignments in Photoshop as we work in order to continue building their Photoshop knowledge. They will receive a grade for each part of the process above, and will also be given a grade on their final poster. The final poster grade will be based on its appropriateness, its appeal to the target audience, the "punch" of their visual imagery, and how well they have gotten across their message. There will be a separate set of criteria for their Photoshop and composition skills including how seamlessly they have combined a variety of images, how well they have integrated filters, how well they have integrated text, if the composition is well balanced, if they have drawn attention to the important parts of the image, etc. Students will grade themselves on a self-evaluation and I will use the same evaluation to determine their grades.

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Appendix A

Center for Disease Control Company Specification Sheet

Company Background: (taken directly from the CDC website) CDC is committed to achieving true improvements in people's lives by accelerating health impact and reducing health disparities. Part of our Healthy People in Healthy Places goal is Healthy Schools.

This goal is to increase the number of schools that protect and promote the health, safety and development of all students, and protect and promote the health and safety of all staff. (e.g. - healthy food vending, physical activity programs)

Objectives:

47. Improve the health and safety of students and school staff by implementing comprehensive and coordinated instruction, programs, policies, and services that involve families and the community.

48. Promote safe, healthy, and accessible physical environments in schools.

49. Promote supportive social, psychological, and emotional environments in schools.

Task: To create a series of three posters which are 24 x 36 to hang in schools across the nation, alerting students to three different health risks: nutrition, body image and smoking. Find a way to get the message across about leading a healthy lifestyle.

Target Audience: High school aged students (13 - 18).

Questions for Company:

Brainstorming:

Nutrition

Smoking

Body Image

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Appendix B

Standards

Connecticut has six visual art standards. This unit addresses these standards:

Standard 1: Students will understand, select and apply media, techniques and processes. In this unit students will understand the techniques and processes of using Adobe Photoshop as a digital art tool.

Standard 3: Students will consider, select and apply a range of subject matter, symbols and ideas. In this unit students will apply symbols and subject matter to create visual representations of current adolescent health concerns.

Standard 5: Students will reflect upon, describe, analyze, interpret and evaluate their own and others' work. In this unit students will complete peer and self-critiques for each assignment.

Standard 6: Students will make connections between the visual arts, other disciplines and daily life. In this unit students will make connections between art and science. They will understand the process of a graphic designer, and the health content will be directly related to their lives.

Teacher Resources

Eagles, Douglas A. Nutritional Diseases. Franklin Watts: New York, NY. 1987. A book contains good, simplified explanations of different nutritional diseases, especially anorexia, bulimia and obesity.

Kessler, David. A Question of Intent. A book about the FDA's fight to regulate the tobacco industry. This book has a wealth of information about the behind the scenes marketing tactics of the tobacco industry, and also about what falls under the FDA's jurisdiction.

Perry, Robert. Focus on Nicotine and Caffeine. Twenty-First Century Books: Frederick, MD. 1990. The effects of smoking are broken down into easy to understand terms.

Pringle, Laurence. Smoking: A Risky Business. Morrow Junior Books: New York, NY. 1996. A book with great information about smoking. This book has many great examples of ads against smoking.

Student Resources

Needham, Kate. Why Do People Eat? Usborne Publishing. 1993. A great children's book with good visuals explaining digestion and a healthy diet.

Pringle, Laurence. Smoking: A Risky Business. Morrow Junior Books: New York, NY. 1996. A book with great information about smoking. This book has many great examples of ads against smoking.

Walker, Richard. Digesting Food. Franklin Watts: London, UK. 2004. Great images explaining digestion.

http://artchives.com A wonderful databank of artist images.

http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/ The Center for Disease Control website has a wonderful and informative site including BMI calculators and background information. It also includes great statistics about smoking.

http://www.campaignforrealbeauty.com/ Dove's Campaign for beauty includes a VERY interesting film called Evolution about why our view of beauty is so distorted feature a model who is made-up then photographed and then completely made over in Photoshop before she is put on a billboard.

http://www.frankwbaker.com/kelloggs_ads.htm A website which lists a variety of different articles about banning commercials of "unhealthy" foods for children under twelve.

http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/index.cfm Media Awareness Network Website. A website with a variety of lesson plans about body image, among other things.

http://www.education-world.com/a_lesson/00-2/lp2192.shtml. A website detailing a smoking demonstration to show students how much tar and nicotine is collected in their lungs when they smoke.

http://www.mypyramid.gov/ Gives the most up to date food pyramid.

http://www.pbs.org/saf/1209/teaching/teaching.htm. A website which explains how to replicate a model of a lung breathing.

http://www.pbs.org/opb/childrenshospital/classroom/index.html. Episode 2: Detectives contains a lesson plan for building lungs similar to the ones created to demonstrate the effects of smoking. Episode 1: Thin is In! discusses media influence and what a healthy lifestyle really entails. Episode 1: Nutrition Decision offers great information about nutrition facts.

http://www.pbs.org/teachers/healthfitness/inventory/nutrition-912.html. An entire list of different lesson plans involving body image and nutrition.

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Contents of 2007 Volume V | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute

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