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Stop the Presses: The Newsies Strike out against Child Labor!

by
Medea E. Lamberti-Sanchez


Contents of Curriculum Unit 13.01.07:

To Guide Entry


Prologue

"In 1899, the streets of New York City echoed with the voices of newsies, peddling the newspapers of Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst and other giants of the newspaper world. On every street corner you saw 'em, carrying the banner, bringing you the news for a penny a pape. Poor orphans and run aways, the newsies were a ragged army, without a leader, until one day when all that changed" (Newsies, the Movie, 1992)

Extra, Extra!! The Newsies strike out against Child Labor: Read all about it!

Stop the Presses: The Newsies strike out against Child Labor will be a month-long, reading and writing unit designed for middle school students, grades five through eight, but may be adapted to fit high school curriculum for students in grades nine through twelve. The unit will discuss, research, read, and write about the topic of child labor in America at the turn of the century, two to three times per week, using a variety of resources that will include the performing arts (music, visual arts, theatre) as well as the literature and information pieces that will help build upon prior knowledge of the topic. This unit will appeal to students who are auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and linguistic learners because they will be researching the topic, writing about the topic, role-playing, and viewing multiple resources surrounding the conflict in order to heighten their engagement with the topic. By using multiple resources, the students will be more excited to learn more about child labor and the influence of "big money powers." It is the intent of the unit that student discourse will be generated, connections will be made with the text, and room for interpretations will be generated.

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Introduction

I saw Newsies, the movie, for the first time in 1993, after my dance teacher, Sandee, decided to use the song "Carrying the Banner" in her dance production number that focused on the story of the newsboy strike of 1899. I loved it!! I was excited to see the movie and was attracted to the lyrics of the songs, not knowing much of the particular background of the events. That particular year, I did a tap solo in dancing school and asked my teacher if I can dance to the song "King of New York." My dance teacher agreed and she choreographed the dance for me. The song represented the children's win in the newspaper fight against the two newspaper giants, Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. The children were the brave, courageous heroes, who stood for what they believed in. This performance piece prompted younger audiences, like me, to ask about the newsboy strike. That is exactly what I did: I conducted my own mini research about the strike and learned some pretty interesting things about life in turn of the century America and child labor.

I did not know much about the newsboy strike of 1899 nor did I know a lot about the issue of child labor, it was only after I performed the dance routine and listened to the lyrics of the songs, that I went out and researched the issue on my own. I looked up newsboys, strikes, and even the president, Theodore Roosevelt, to find out how much of the information Sandee based her performance piece on, was similar to the historical event. Although Sandee included colorful costumes and energetic dance routines to tell the story of the newsboys, she maintained closeness to the actual dress of the boys during this time period and used specific song lyrics to represent the event.

There were also similarities and differences between the dance routine, the movie, and the historical event which I was eager to look into, not only because of the performance piece, but for my own knowledge of the social issues that these kids in New York were fighting for. I learned that the movie fictionalized characters that were not a major part of the original newsboy leaders like a vaudeville singer, Margaret, and Denton, the newspaper writer, and I also learned that the value of the money that the newspapers sold for was inflated to a tenth of a cent more than the original price.

It wasn't until ten years later that I became interested in this topic once again. I researched the topic again recently through informational articles, photographs, speeches made by Child Labor activists, and fictional accounts in children's literature to enrich my earlier research done many years ago. I researched photographs of children in their crusade against child labor from photographer, Lewis Hines, and read informational articles about children in Indonesia who worked for pennies instead of going to school.

The dance routine symbolized the struggles that the children in the story overcame as well as an attempt to make her audience aware that this issue is still apparent in different parts of the world like Indonesia, Pakistan, and our own United States. Her idea was that through music, costumes, and dance, the performance piece would show the past and the present struggles of the children who survived in a world where money was scarce, home was not an option, and bathing in a bucket was a normal occurrence.

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Rationale

I decided to use a performance piece like Newsies to take the topic of child labor, and use the arts platform to creatively explain the historical significance of the event as well as draw real-life connections to the topic through informational, non-fiction articles as well as fictional resources to allow the students to create and draw their own connections to the materials. Since Betsy Ross is an arts-magnet school that provides children with an outlet to see and think differently, the performance piece will provide many ways for the students to enrich their background of child labor through music, dance, theatre, and visual arts. This piece will invite the students to research people and places in the past like Theodore Roosevelt and New York, 1899, as well as current people and places in the world involved in the fight to end child labor like the National Child Labor Committee. Performance excites and attracts its viewers through its exciting plot, characters, and portrayal of history seen through another's perspective. The performance piece will allow my students to use the production to gather their own perspective about what information they received from viewing the movie, Newsies. I think this piece will push them to find differences and similarities between the fictionalized portrayal and the historical portrayal of the same event and interpret it accordingly.

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Background Information: Betsy Ross Arts Magnet School

At present, I am a regular education fifth grade Language Arts and Social Studies teacher at Betsy Ross Arts Magnet School in New Haven, Connecticut, in an inclusive classroom setting with both regular and Special Education students. Betsy Ross is a middle school that serves students in grades five through eight. Betsy Ross serves urban and suburban students from surrounding areas of New Haven and it is for this reason that this is an inter-district school because all students from these areas are encouraged to attend the New Haven Public School System. Betsy Ross is founded on the principle that through the arts, students will think, learn, and see their academics in an innovative, challenging way. Each student attends five academic subjects (Math, Language Arts, Science, Social Studies, and an Enrichment class(French, Chinese, Spanish, Reading or Math Enrichment) and one specific performing arts class (Theatre, Dance, Visual Arts, Photography, Video, Music) every day.

I teach in an inclusive classroom setting with a Special Education teacher. Both of us present within the room, modeling the co-teaching principle. The Special Education teacher collaborates and consults with me on the modifications and adaptations of the Regular Education curriculum for all of the four subjects: Math, Language Arts, Science, and Social Studies that are all taught in the classroom throughout the day. The students spend the majority of their day in my classroom only leaving for their enrichment class or the arts class. There are twenty-two students, five of whom have individualized Educational Plans, which involve a variety of modifications and adaptations to the regular education curriculum. The remainder's functional abilities range from below-basic learners to advanced learners. My classroom has a wide array of learning disabilities present that range from the intellectually disabled student to ADHD student. The make-up of the classroom consists of students who are Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic. The class is made up of artistic, creative young people with a strong interest in the arts that is shown through their poetry writings, group presentations, and performances in the theatre, dance showcases, and the annual arts shows.

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The Focus on Literature and Information

More than ten years have gone by since Disney released the film and re-released it into a Broadway Musical in New York's most popular theatres. According to the New York Public Library's blog on the musical, "The popularity of the Disney Broadway show based on the Disney film has led many of our younger patrons to ask about the newsboys and the strike they led in 1899 on which the film and play are based." Younger audiences want to know why these boys and girls fought so hard to make a difference. If they are asking, then they should know. The question is: what literature will they use to build their prior knowledge? Will they read non-fiction books like The Industrial Revolution, or fiction books like Joshua's Song to seek out the information they want to know? Are some resources not specific enough because they want children to form their own perspectives on the topic?

My unit will focus on the relationship between fiction and non-fiction resources to identify how students can best get their information about a specific topic. For the unit's topic on child labor, I thought, for example, that students should read informational articles on child labor like Life in the Dumps, by Kris Saks, about a young girl who works for pennies sifting through a dumpster to help her family survive, and pair it with a fiction story, Paperboy, by Isabelle Holland, about a newsie boy struggling to support his family. The unit will use the informational, non-fiction readings to build knowledge, or lay the foundation for the historical event, and weave in fictional materials for the students to read for another purpose, that is, to generate their own ideas, connections, and supply the information that is missing. Perhaps, the information that the students get from reading a fiction piece will be different from the information derived from an informational piece. For example, if the students read The Gate in the Wall, a fiction book about an impoverished child in England, then they may make the assumption that working ten hours per day is a cruel, difficult life for a child their age. The students can connect to the age of the child and imagine themselves in that predicament. Fiction can provide the imagination part of the historical realism. In another words, the fiction will help create the mental images so that the students can imagine the historical event more vividly. Non-fiction pieces do not provide the same effect because they already provide the reader with everything he or she needs to know about the historical event.

For this unit, history and literature relate to one another, and both are interchangeable. The reader can learn a lot from reading literature about history and watching historical events. Literature provides the background knowledge of the event, so that any other information that is presented to them about the subject matter will help build a more comprehensible understanding. It is important to make sure that the students understand the conflict completely and then build in other resources to enrich the texts used to teach the concept. The unit will use a plethora of resources to promote critical thinking skills, while pushing the students to choose texts that are meaningful.

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Objectives for the Unit

The reading and writing objectives for this unit are that the students will be able to acquire knowledge by drawing information from multiple and digital print sources to develop and organize their writing in a concise, accurate manner. According to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subject (CCSS), students are expected to "draw evidence from literary or informational text to support analysis, reflection, and research as well as use their knowledge to engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions about the topic". This unit will address these standards by offering multiple opportunities for the students to engage in student discourse, work cooperatively, and independently, while being able to share ideas that were expressed during classroom discussions. The students will learn how to organize their notes using graphic organizers like the essay organizer, Venn diagram, or the KWL (know, what to know, and learn chart), so that their writing will have fluidity as well as structure and craft. Students will be able to think more critically about the informational and fiction texts that are being discussed making valid connections that will promote the "big idea" of the unit.

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Goal of the Unit

It is the goal of the unit for the students to work independently on a research paper using multiple internet websites and books, informational articles, or any other resources they can find to explain the perspectives of persons of the newsboy strike of 1899's and their views on child labor. The teacher will provide the students with the names of individuals that existed from the movie or during that time period who were involved with the strike and place them into a raffle-like jar for the students to randomly choose. Once the student gets the name of the person, they can immediately begin taking notes and prepare for the culminating activity. It is the goal that the students understand what child labor is, understand the perspectives of the people they are researching, and determine meaning from the articles that they are reading about the conflict. The students can use the historical pieces about the time period as well as read shortened biographies on the internet about their person. The people that the teacher will choose range from Theodore Roosevelt, William Randolph Hearst, to one of the newspaper boys like, Kid Blink, or Spot Conlon. There may even be one student researching the role of the National Child Labor Organization's relationship to child labor. It is the goal that people or organizations from today would also be an option for the students to research.

Once the students research their person or organization using a set of teacher-generated questions, the students will organize their material, type it on Microsoft word, and prepare to be interviewed by the teacher on a "pretend" talk show like the Oprah Winfrey Show. It is the goal that the students are knowledgeable about who they represent and are prepared to talk in the perspective of their character. Each student will also have a chance to prepare dialogue or questions for another character during the mock talk show. It is the student's choice how they want their character's opinion to be heard, and how they want their character's story to be told.

The end goal is that the students feel a sense of connection to the characters that they are impersonating. Role play is a huge component of the culminating piece because the performing arts will allow for creativity to differentiate the characters either by the use of pictures, props, costumes, music, or dance. Students will decide how to represent their person, so it is the goal that they know enough background information in order for the character to be believable.

Other goals for the unit include persuasive writing, summarizing informational articles, and viewing multiple visual photographs to analyze and determine meaning from. It is the intent of the unit that the students learn from the multiple resources about how child labor has never ceased to exist from the 1ate 1800's until the present, but will also learn that there are people and organizations that are fighting for the cause. I want my students to be able to walk away from this unit utilizing all the strategies taught to become better readers, writers, and thinkers and implement them throughout their learning careers. All the strategies that are being taught can be altered and modified to fit the needs of the students and are highly transferrable, purposely intended to teach higher-ordered thinking skills.

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Unit Overview: A brief synopsis

The unit outline will feature four parts: In the first part, the students will view a scene, or the entire movie/musical of Newsies with a discussion about the conflict. The second part of the unit will ask the students to research a person of their choice. The third part will include a persuasive letter from their person's perspective, and the fourth part will ask the students to take part in the mock "talk show" for their characters as the final piece of the unit.

In between these four parts will be lessons based on specific strategies that the students need to be taught in order to be able to complete the culminating activity like character perspective, compare/contrasting fiction versus informational, and researching techniques. The core novel, Joshua's Song, will be read throughout the four weeks, as well as independent novels like Oliver Twist, The Gate in the Wall, The Circuit, and Child Labor in America, as personal readers for reading when work is completed, or if there is downtime in the classroom. There are many titles to choose from besides those. In addition, short articles like Life in the Dumps by Kris Saks, or excerpts from books like Kids at Work by Lewis Hine, or Bully for You, Teddy Roosevelt by Jean Fritz will be used to provide meaningful, background on the issue of child labor.

The performance arts aspect will also be highlighted throughout the unit by introducing the students to visualizations that link word to image, songs that provide room for interpretations or speculations about what life was like for a typical newsboy, graphic novels that portray the newsboys fiercely defending their rights. Students will also have the chance to reinvent dialogue through role-playing activities about what the newsboys might have said to each other before, after, or during the protest.

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Description of the Unit and the Classroom Lessons Designed for Each Part

Part I: Movie Predictions and Discussions with Questions and Answers

In the first part, the students will learn about child labor through watching specific excerpts of the movie Newsies where the students explore how the newsboys opposed child labor, and chart their responses using a web that will be categorized into specific headings having to do with why children work. They will also work with vocabulary words that are specific to the topic as well as generate a written response to the following questions: Is it wrong for younger children to work, if so, then why? And at what age should children be allowed to work? What kinds of work should children do? One question per day can be used in order to generate a focused response. I would ask students to think about children working as babysitters in the present while in the past, children worked in coal mines.

This will form the persuasive writing assignment later on in the unit. Keep in mind that the first part of the unit will include non-fiction materials as well as other documents weaved in throughout to build knowledge and provide background information to the students. The lessons in the first part could be done over three to four days; it is not recommended that they are done in one day.

A historical fiction novel, Joshua's Song, will be used as the core-reading text, and the teacher will read excerpts a book like Child Labor in America; Perspectives on History Series by Juliet H. Mofford to help the students understand what child labor is through a short article entitled Children work the Streets and Strike of the Newsies, an editorial from the New York Times written by a rival newspaper about the newsboy strike.

Classroom Activities: Lesson 1: Introduction to the Movie and Prologue

In small groups, the children will watch the video clip of the Newspaper boys preparing to strike without any conversations about the video from the teacher and the students will figure out the problem of the story by paying close attention to dialogue, facial expressions, and actions of the newspaper boys. The teacher will generate conversation after the video clip to prompt the students to think about what they saw and thought about the characters, settings, and dialogue between characters. The teacher will chart responses from the students on chart paper. The main heading will be child labor and the surrounding circles could be subtitles labeled: Why did the newsboys work? What ages do you think the newsboys were? Is it wrong for the children to be allowed to work? What is the setting? What are the newsboys wearing? All of these categories could be used, or just some, depending on the teacher's discretion. After responses are generated, the students will then write a quick response about working children.

Next, the students will be given a written paper with the prologue from the movie on it, and students will circle the words that they do not think they know the meaning of. For some students, it might be the word "pape" or "peddling" and we will create meaning for the words, say the words, and write them underneath our web so that we can add information to our child labor web of both ideas that the students had about children at work as well as vocabulary associated with child labor in general and the newspaper boy strike. Students can use the words in sentences and then illustrate a picture, if extra support is needed.

Lastly, the students will read two informational articles, Strike of the Newsies and Children Work the City Streets and will read aloud the title and article for fluency and vocabulary, add to web, if needed any vocabulary, and lastly summarize the article by identifying and organizing the topic and its details. Is there any information that can be added to the child labor web? If so, then the teacher will generate discussions and prompt the students to respond. The summary of the two articles will be used as an exit slip for the closure of the lesson. The students will be asked to keep the web with the new information in their notebook, and the teacher will retain his or her chart paper posted on the wall in the room.

Part II: Research of a Specific Person, or Organization Associated with Child Labor

Students will research a person associated with child labor in the technology center, library, or the classroom to become an expert on. This is the person that they will become on the talk show for the culminating project. Each student will choose the person from a list of names that the teacher compiled. The raffle jar will hold the names of the people, and once the student picks the person, then they will begin to work on finding answers to specific questions that the teacher will have previously generated and distribute to the students at this time.

Classroom Activities: Lesson 2: Photographs and Technology

At the beginning of the lesson, the teacher will begin with one picture of one of the following: a group of newsboys, a single newsboy, Randolph Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer, or Theodore Roosevelt. The teacher will not disclose the person's name, but the teacher will open up the conversation about what the children see in the picture, very careful not to give away what the picture is about. Responses will form and this will lead us into a conversation about the nature of the picture. It is at this point that the teacher will tell who the picture depicts. The picture can show on an LCD projector, a photocopied picture distributed to each student, or a slide of a picture. Teachers can use the internet browsers like Google or Yahoo to locate a photo to use, or it can be taken from a book, whichever is easier to locate. Students can also write about what the picture looks like, if a written response is needed for closure of the lesson, or the exit slip. Photographs provide the students with a visual depiction of what life was like and also may give clues to the dress of the time period.

Next, the students will be taken to the computer lab where a typed set of questions will be given to the students for them to answer about the person they choose to research. The teacher may use the same photograph to model how to find photos on their people of choice. The teacher will model how to use the internet explorer icon to get to a website browser. The teacher will make suggestions about what to type in order for the students to get to the information that that is needed to complete the assignment. The teacher will model a website and discuss how to read a website correctly, locate the homepage where information is located for the sake of a bibliography, and show the students what pages are great for information and which ones to stay away from. The teacher will circulate around the room to make sure that the students are not copying the website, and are locating appropriate web pages to be on. Students will write down their answers and when finished, type them on Microsoft word. Some of the questions might ask about personal information having to do with the person's siblings, marriages, childhood, while other questions might ask for them to find the person's role in the newsboy strike/child labor issue. If the teacher needs a closure, he or she can ask the students to name one fact that they have learned so far about the person.

Part III- Perspectives

Letter-writing will be the next part of the unit after the students have become an expert on their person through their research. The letter will be written from the perspective of the person and how he or she feels about child labor, in general. The letter could be from a newsboy to Teddy Roosevelt, or the letter could be written to the National Child labor organization from a newsboy, or Teddy Roosevelt. The student has a choice about how he or she wants his or her letter to read. This is a persuasive letter focusing on the questions: Is it wrong for young people to work, and what age should they be able to work for compensation that is fair? Here, they have a chance to synthesize the information that they've learned and have taken notes on and build a case for their writing. The catch is that the students must write from the person's perspective regardless of their viewpoints on the topic. That is why it is important for them to be knowledgeable about the person they have and know what he or she believed in. Students will have to draft their work, edit, revise, rewrite, and share out to their peers at the conclusion of the lessons. Students may be asked to present their letter, if they feel inclined and willing to do so.

Classroom Activities: Lesson 3: A Walk in Their Shoes for One Day

In this classroom writing lesson, the teacher will teach the students the acronym RAFT. Raft stands for role, audience, format, and topic. The role is the person that the student has researched and it is the perspective that the letter is written from. The audience refers to who the letter is written for (i.e. newsboys, president), the format is the letter, and the topic will be the person's views on child labor. Each student will receive a graphic organizer template displaying these four categories. This template will help the students organize their thoughts, find the audience, and the main idea. This will help make sure all the important elements are placed into the template organizer in order to prepare them to decide who they are writing the letter to, who will be their audience, and what will the subject of the letter be about. The teacher will show the students a RAFT template, and explain what each letter stands for, making sure to place the words on the chart paper with their meanings, then model how to write key responses in the template using a piece of text, like the news article read previously, Strike of the Newsies, written by a rival newspaper. The students can respond together during whole group, or the teacher can choose another article for the students to respond in their RAFT template to. It may be easier to model it whole group, then try independently with their information about their person.

Part IV: The Talk Show

The final piece to this unit is the ultimate talk show, where the students will be role-playing their characters that they chose to research and be interviewed by the host of the talk show, the teacher. The students will spend a few days deciding and compiling their costumes, their props, their scenery made out of construction paper and paint, and their choices in how they would like to portray their character. They will have a chance to design pictures for a pretend photo album to display of their friends or family, or design their own prop to bring with them on the pretend stage for the talk show.

Classroom Activity 4: Lesson 4: Talk, Talk, Talk

The day of the talk show, the teacher will set up the room with chairs in a semi-circle, for the contestants and a set of chairs in front of the semi-circle for the audience. There will be six to eight students that will appear on the stage for about ten to twelve minutes and they will be asked questions and will be expected to answer them from the perspective of their character. The host may ask a panel expert to share their thoughts on the question: Should children be allowed to work, and if so, at what age? It will be at this point that the guest experts can share the letter that they wrote. The audience will have a chance to ask questions to the experts as well. Role-play is the main vehicle that will tie together everything that this unit offers on their knowledge of child labor and the players of the newsboy strike of 1899.

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Closure

Since most of the unit focused on the story of the newsboy strike and child labor, the teacher might want to discuss the National Child Labor Association in relationship to today's children in parts of the world where child labor still exists. For example, a great article on children in the Philippines entitled, Child Labor in the Philippines and the right to play, by Thesa Samba, is an informational article that talks about what types of jobs children have to have, what ages they go to work for their families, and discusses the results of children working on their education. This article can leave the students with a desire to continue researching the laws, or continuing their discussion on the topic since it is still happening today. It is a current issue that still exists. Students can connect yesterday's issues to today. It was the intent of the unit that the students also felt a connection to the person with whom they role-played, as well as, have more knowledge about them than they did before. Hopefully, students will feel inclined to make more useful connections to the material, or perhaps they would like to express how they feel with a letter to the National Child Labor Organization defending the rights of a child and send it to the headquarters for reorganization. Ultimately, a letter coming from a child about their rights may be one way to gain attention and change the world for many young children so that their rights will not be taken away. In the words of the Newsies, open the gates and seize the day.

Seize the Day

Open the gates and seize the day Don't be afraid and don't delay Nothing can break us No one can make us give our rights away Arise and seize the day

--The Newsies, 1992

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Student and Teacher Reading List:

Cole, Shelia. Working Kids on Working. Lee and Shepard Books, New York, NY, 2006.

Twenty-five young children discuss work experience. The book also includes the history of child labor laws.

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Modern Publishing, Unisystems, Inc. New York, NY, 1995

Oliver Twist, an orphan who escapes cruel masters in the workhouse to escape to a brand new life.

Durbin, William. The Journal of Otto Peltonen. Scholastic, Inc. New York, NY. 2000

In 1905, Otto discusses in his journal his journey from Finland to America enduring the coal mining factories.

Freedman, Russell. Kids at Work: Lewis Hine and the Crusade against Child Labor. Clarion Books, New York, NY 1994

The book includes photographs of children working

Fritz, Jean. Bully for You, Teddy Roosevelt. G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York, NY. 1991

This book follows the life of the President Theodore Roosevelt

Hakim, Joy. History of U.S. An Age of Extremes: 1870-1917. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. 1999

This book covers America from the 1800's to World War I

Harlow, Joan Hiatt. Joshua's Song. Simon and Schulster, New York, NY. 2003

Boston 1919, a thirteen-year old Josh works as a newspaper boy in Boston to earn money after his father's death from influenza in 1918.

Holland, Isabelle. Paperboy. Holiday House, New York, NY 1999

In 1881, NYC, twelve year old Kevin O'Donnell struggles to support his family as a newsie but finds his job threatened when he is accused of stealing from his employer.

Howard, Ellen. The Gate in the Wall. Athenaeum Books for Young Readers; Simon and Schuster Children's Publishing, New York, NY 1999

In 19t h century England, ten-year old Emma works ten hour days at a silk mill.

Jimenez, Francisco. The Circuit: Stories from the life of a Migrant Child. University of New Mexico Press, Alberique. 1997

Small stories that follow the lives of a migrant family

Kraft, Betsy-Harvey. Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt: Champion of the American Spirit. Clarion Brooks, New York, NY 2003

A biography of Theodore Roosevelt

Mofford, Juliet. Child Labor in America, Perspectives on History Series. Discovery Enterprises, LTD, Carlisle, MA. 2000.

A book on many perspectives on child labor throughout history

Springer, Jane. Listen to Us: The World's Working Children. Groundwood Books, Toronto, Canada. 1997

A book that includes photographs by Lewis Hine and explains to young people what child labor is and read the stories of many children throughout the world.

Stearman, Kaye, Child Labor: Face the Facts. Raintree, a divison of Reed Elsevier, Inc. 2004

The book looks at different work being done by children throughout the world

Wilkinson, Philip and Pollard, Michael. The Industrial Revolution. Chelsea House Publishers, New York, NY 1995.

The book highlights the inventions of the Industrial Revolution

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Internet Resources

http://www.neiu.edu/

This site explains inquiry based learning and arts integration

http://www.readwritethink.org

This site provides an article that discusses using role-play to explore author's lives.

http://www.reading.org

This site is dedicated to the Journal of adolescent and adult literacy where they have a great article on the effectiveness of role play in the oral traditions.

http://www.libcom.org/history/newsboys-strike-of-1899

This site features 10,000 articles from history

http://www.historydetectives.nyhistory.org

A blog created by the DiMenna's History Museum

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Implementing State Standards: Language Arts, Grade 5: Common Core Standards

Standards and Objectives for Reading, Writing, and Research, Grade 5

The Language Arts standards for reading, writing, and research will directly align with the Common Core State Standards. The standards for Reading Informational Text:

Key Ideas and Details

- CCSS ELA-Literacy. R1.5.2 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text

- CCSS ELA-Literacy.R1.5.3 Explain the Relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Craft and Structure

- CCSS ELA-Literacy.R.1.5.6 Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.R1.5.7 Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.R1.5.9 Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

The Standards for Reading Literature, Grade 5

- CCSS ELA-Literacy.RL.5.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

Language Arts Standards for Writing and Research, Grade 5

Production and Distribution of Writing

- CCSS ELA-Literacy.WL.5.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience

- CCSS ELA-Literacy.WL.5.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge:

- CCSS ELA-Literacy.WL.5.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.

- CCSS ELA-Literacy.WL.5.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

- CSS.ELA-Literacy.WL.5.9a Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]").

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