Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home

New Haven History: Block by Block

by
Jesus Tirado


Contents of Curriculum Unit 13.02.10:

To Guide Entry


Introduction

History does not live in a textbook, on a page, or in the past. Yet, in classrooms that are driven by standardized tests, history seems confined to exist as solely facts and figures. There seems to be no room with this drive to include anecdotes, personal histories, or local history. George Washington crossing the Delaware is an important event, but my students know nothing of the Siege of New Haven. While I don't want to equate the two in terms of importance, knowledge of local place and local history need to be incorporated into our classrooms in vivid ways.

History does not live in a textbook, but where is it exactly? The job of the historian is to find history, trends, events, and accounts, and weave them into a narrative about our past. While, historians do read a lot, they don't look for 'canned' answers in textbooks. Historians spend their time look at and investigating different resources to help them see and explain what they see. I want my students to be historians, to deal with the past on a face-to-face basis, to interpret what they see and discover, and to understand the power beyond "canned" answers. There are considerable struggles and difficulties with this task in the classroom. As the teacher, our job is to help students see the larger connections between their interviews and their work in the classroom.

History lives on the streets and outside the strict confines of the classroom and textbook and doesn't exist solely according to an answer key. History needs to be messy and students need to do history in order to understand that. The culminating project tasks students to create Oral History of a New Haven Block, their block. Sending students out to conduct interviews and compile trends and facts about their block will give them to chance to see how personal and local stories match the larger historical trends and ideas we discuss in class. History doesn't just live in books and classroom assignments, but it also isn't easy to find history on the streets and neighborhoods alive and well. My project will help students connect the trends and

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Rational

My students and textbooks are like oil and water. There are several divisions between them that impair larger understanding and appreciation of history in my classroom. I want my students to experience history from a close and personal perspective informed by their textbooks and classroom and not limited by them. For the students in my US History 2 class, History seems very divorced from their life and from their world. Even more contemporary events and figures appear distant and inconsequential to my US History 2 Classes. Why should they care about the Harlem Renaissance, or the World War 2, or Great Depression, plagues our achievement and learning in class. These distant events continue to shape huge portions of our world and society. Students would do well to see how these trends shape the lives of people around them.

There are of course, several ways to do this. Primary sources can be found all over the internet and our libraries and provide great insights into the worlds of the past. Reading about how the Great Depression, the Great Migration, and Immigration affected New Haven's people and population provides incredible and personal vantage points for seeing just how devastating or influential an event or trend can be. Without proper context, stories and anecdotes can lose their relevancy. For this project to be successful, students need to be able to place local history within the national contexts. Finding, seeing, and understanding the different connections between their interviewees and their classroom content will take their learning on parallel paths allowing them to see the larger connections. This duality will mean that the project will take on a variety of different tasks and require lots of scaffolding. My role as teacher is to provide this structure to help my students understand what they are hearing and seeing in their interviews.

The primary questions of this assignment are aimed at getting students to act as the historians of their neighborhoods. Where are we from? What brought us here? Who lives in our neighborhood? How has the neighborhood changed? And Has the City Changed? Each question serves as a gateway to research, conversation, and analysis that students can easily accomplish. With this project, we don't want students to be overwhelmed by the process of researching, interviewing, and analyzing the stories of their neighborhoods. Instead, the questions are meant to parallel the learning of the classroom, focus the student's research, and scaffold the student's ideas and analysis about their project and neighborhood.

Where are we from? Origins are the start of our stories and the stories of our city, neighborhoods, and families. Immigration and migration are common denominators and great forces of change in American story and the city lies at the heart of this. As students discuss origins with their interviewees and around their neighborhoods, this will naturally bring about other discussions. Knowing the origins of their interviewees will be a natural starting point for my students, but I want them to work to see how families and communities come together. For my students' families and neighborhoods, New Haven has acted as beacon attracting lots of different people to the city. Exploring the question of how did you or family come to New Haven can unlock a number of connections between local and national history.

What brought us here? This question adds layers to the interviewee's life and adds dynamic histories to the neighborhood. The several different forces find the bring people in and out of our cities are almost universal across the nation. For New Haven, large historical trends like Industrialization, Immigration, and the Great Migration connect the city's history to the larger trends. Students will discover New Haven's neighborhoods have experienced major historical movements and forces through the people that inhabit it. At this step, I want students to pause and recognized the different challenges of the people they are interviewing. Challenges will range from aligning different stories and to finding different people to interview. I imagine that students will struggle to find and connect their interviewee's stories to the larger historical trends that we will be discussing in class. It will be important at this stage to really connect and re-connect with your students to ensure that they are carefully examining their interviews. For most students, this will be a difficult part of the process and one that will test the limits of their listening and comprehension.

Who lives in our neighborhood? As the cap question of our project, it is meant to finalize the student's work and push them to reflect and analyze what they've done. This would be a time for the students to connect their neighborhood with the different trends and forces that they will have learned about in their history classroom. This question will also allow us to build different maps of New Haven and even build maps across the different years this project takes place. I want to students to be able to see how diverse their city is and how history has impacted their own neighborhood. Putting their work and research into perspective will allow students to see and recognize how communities have changed and how the people who make them up connect to the events in their textbooks. As you reflect on interviews with your students, it is imperative to help them see the cycles of immigration and migration through their interviews. There will be some key principles that you will need to align your students to. The chief among these principles being the cycle of introducing new people to neighborhoods and places with special attention paid to the forces that push and pull people to America and shape their experiences here. Students need to see and understand how groups are integrated into cities and how they can form their own cultures and spaces in that unit. Using the history classroom and the interviews will allow students to see and piece that story together on their own.

How has the neighborhood changed? This question asks the students, their interviewees, and the class as a whole to focus in on and view the changes that have happened in the neighborhood. Understanding these changes and their effects will show students how much their blocks and neighborhoods have changed. This area will allow the class to truly see how historical trends and events impact and change communities on the ground. This aspect of the project brings together their work in the streets and the classroom. It is designed to bring together their work and enhance their learning.

How has the city changed? My students need to see how their city has changed and how it is evolving. Asking their interviewees about how they've seen change in their city. This will help students see how change has occurred in New Haven. Hearing the different stories of how New Haven's changes will give students the opportunity to collect different stories about New Haven's transitions. Our students' blocks will hold a collection of different stories and perspectives. For the classroom project, this particular question will create a tapestry of stories that express part of the story of the City. The resulting stories will allow students to see across the city's history and the different trends that have impacted the current landscape.

The idea behind the different questions provides a framework to help students understand and see the history of New Haven. Using the perspective of the interviewees, students will gain a better and deeper perspective of the city. Working through interviews and with interviewees will help students see how history impacts different people and communities of New Haven. One suggestion on working through the interviews includes placing their answers to the questions along a timeline of New Haven History. This would allow for students, as they work through the interviews to see the connections between their interviewees and the forces and events of New Haven's History. Rae's book, The City: Urbanism and its End, does not provide a timeline, but does provide a chronological look at New Haven's important events.

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Background

New Haven, like most cities, allows its residents to live through multiple historical trends without necessarily seeing them. We don't often see the forces at work unless we are looking for them. Cities have hidden histories that can elude even the best of historians, let alone the wandering attentions of high school students. New Haven provides a great environment for looking at and examining these urban and human histories. My students are especially blind to the fact that their city is an amazing human phenomenon given their nature but also that no one has asked them to look for it.

This unit is designed around getting students to learn about their city, its history, geography, and human geography. There are different activities designed to introduce students to each facet of the city. Our high school is particularly well situated for these exercises. Its location in the heart of downtown of New Haven provides a great area for students to practice and learn about the city. The New Haven Garden Club (gardenclubnhgmail.com) has produced a DVD History of the New Haven Green. This provides an excellent place to start looking at the city. The New Haven Green is a feature that very uniquely New England and its histories intersect with many different trends and events. Students would benefit from seeing the how different events can overlap on a unique geographic place. The New Haven Green has been the site of Salem-esque Witch Trials, Race Riots, the Amistad Trial, and World War 2 Training. All these different events play into the history of the Green and students need to see this overlap in order to see beyond the immediately visible.

This concept of overlapping histories will benefit the students as they prepare for their projects. Students need to be prepared for finding different histories together in similar geographic areas. As students learn about the histories of immigration, migration, and industrialization, they will be preparing to understand their city better. These histories play a significant role in the New Haven's past and in my students' past. A quick survey of my students revealed that most were not aware of their family's histories but could partially trace roots back to other parts of our nation or other parts of the world. Preparing students to see and locate the different aspects of New Haven History will definitely benefit my students understanding of New Haven's history and our nation's history.

Preparing students to understand the different intersections of history will require a lot of preparation. After we work on Immigration in the classroom, I plan on having my students the first chapter of Douglas Rae's book, The City: Urbanism and its End, entitled "Creative Destruction and the Age of Urbanism". This chapter does a good job of combining and outline of New Haven's history along with pointing to some of the forces at work in New Haven's History and current issues. This is one of the key issues that my students will encounter in their studies. How does New Haven change with the new people that enter it? What do new people bring to the city? What brings new people into the city? With all the changes that New Haven has gone through, know that change has occurred and how students can trace that change through the eyes of its inhabitants will provide key experiences for my students.

There are a number of different avenues to help students prepare and execute their interviews. There are a couple of different ways to prep your students for this work. In class, you should hold mock interviews, map lessons, and even use the New Haven Museum (http://www.newhavenmuseum.org) or any local museum if you are not in New Haven to help students understand what the project's goals and aim are. These ideas are also outlined in lessons one and two. Having students conduct photo essays, documentary films, or poems inspired by their neighborhood allows for differentiation. My school is also an arts magnet school and allowing for an artistic exploration would be pedagogically appropriate for my students and for our school. Historically, there are any number of artistic endeavors that can connect my students to their experience in the city. The Photo essay portion is the one that particularly excites me because it means that my students will be connecting with the work of people like Jacob Riis. Bringing in multiple ways/methods of conducting the Project will allow students of multiple levels to access the benefits.

The end goal of the students' work needs to be a united view of the history of New Haven. Differentiation not only allows for more students to participate, but for there to be a diverse set of ways for others to look at New Haven. As students tie together their projects, their collective efforts producing narratives, photos, interviews, and maps should mirror the sources and materials we are viewing in class. Getting students to recognize the work they doing, acting as historians of their worlds, provides for meaningful learning and activities. Students will start to see their city's different histories and stories through their work.

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Content Objectives and Common Core

There are many Common Core objectives that this project can push and incorporate in your classroom. As has been discussed previously in this unit, the goal behind this project is to get students to know the history of their locality and learn the habits and mindset of the historian. In my classroom, there is a strong focus on working with and understanding the past through primary sources. It is worth noting that non-fiction reading is a major push of the new Common Core standards that are being adopted by several states including Connecticut. This project pushes that standard and the students as they become the recorders and keepers of their local history. Finding and generating the primary sources is only one step of this project. The presentations and analytical writing are also standards in the Common Core.

The critical thinking that it will take to finish this project will definitely push students to new levels of thinking and growth. One of the key things to push is that committing your classroom and your students to this project will really stimulate historical thinking amongst your students. This kind of critical thinking, researching, and writing have been the focus of several studies regarding creating stronger students. As a teacher, monitoring and adjusting the rigor of this project will be of paramount importance to its success. Without considerations regarding rigor, students might find the project either too easy or too hard to complete successfully. Each teacher needs to judge and evaluate what their students can and should be able to accomplish. Connecting history to the daily lives and locality of our students is not an easy proposition, but it is one that has merit and can pay almost unlimited dividends.

The other key aspect that this unit organizes itself around is inquiry-driven learning. This entire project is built around inquiry based learning as the students seek to find out the history of their block. Students will be driven by the questions discussed above as they investigate their neighborhoods and write their analysis. This also aligns with the Common Core requirements about students learning research skills. Students will be conducting "on the ground" research as they investigate their neighborhoods.

Students' learning is best served by a variety of challenges that build upon their strengths and challenge their preconceptions. This unit was designed around my students' strong communication skills and the need to incorporate more research into the class. The nature of the unit allows it to cover a lot of different standards and learning styles which makes for great learning. Even with some modification to meet your students' needs and capacities, the unit can meet many standards of your content field and the Common Core.

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Teaching Strategies

Lesson One

Objectives:

New Haven's status as a diverse and growing city is well known to students growing up here. They take this fact for granted and see that New Haven's opportunities and problems are the inevitable outgrowths of city life. This would be a false notion for our students to operate under and one that does not portray the changes that occur in New Haven. There are numerous amounts of changes that have occurred in our city and impact our students. For the first lesson of this project you will need to do the following: introduce the project, the idea of oral history, and get students to re-think their perspectives. This lesson is meant solely to outline the project and the learning and work that the students will be doing.

To introduce the project to your students, you will need to explain new ways doing history and envisioning their work. I would hand out the "Introduction" to Douglas Rae's The City: Urbanism and its End. This part of the book outlines the changes that New Haven has seen through the perspective of a small business owner in downtown New Haven. You can either assign students to read it in groups or together along with questions to ascertain the general gist of the chapter and extract themes from the piece. This chapter will introduce the ideas of change in the city and how the city continues to change. The themes that students extrapolate will also coincide with the themes that we will be learning about in our city, immigration, and migration unit.

The Introduction presents New Haven history through the perspective of the shop owner, Joseph Perfetto, as he discusses how industry and the city have changed. The use of Perfetto in this chapter illustrates the benefit of using personal accounts to explain and explore history. Personal accounts are at the heart of this project, and Perfetto's story and struggle make a perfect segue way into the power of personal stories and accounts. As you discuss the power of Perfetto's testimony and perspective, ask students to think about two or three of people they would talk to who might inform them about the history of their Neighborhood. This will allow you to talk about the Oral History Project.

When you explain the Oral History Project, it is important to go through the work and the concerns that students will have along with the objectives and requirements of the project. At a very simple level, students should be required to conduct 3 interviews with 3 different people focusing on or around the different topics and questions that have been discussed in this paper. After a discussion on themes and questions, have students experiment with putting the questions in their own words. Inform them that they will be training on how to conduct interviews in class over the next few days, and discussing the final task which will be a cumulative effort of everyone's parts and interviews.

For the final task, there is a lot of leeway to measure student learning and growth. Students could write up their reflections and post them to a classroom blog. Another way might be for students to create a map on Google Maps ©, a free tool, of the people they talked to and summarize what they learned about their neighborhood. Students could also create photo galleries and podcasts that could be posted, with participant and student consent, online to start to build neighborhood histories. All of these ideas will push students to synthesize and analyze the information they gathered from their interviewees and class. Driving students to find connections between their interviewee's words and the ideas and concepts in their textbooks will bring life and add faces to trends in their books and make history alive for the students. Getting students to understand the work they need to do and how to do it will require work on your end.

Lesson Two

Objectives: Maps, Sample Interview

The objectives of this lesson are to introduce students to the project, the history of their city, and the process of making an oral history. The goal behind this lesson showcases how difficult it can be assess the value of your interviewee's perspective and align it with the learning going on in the textbook. There are two different strategies that will be outlined here in this section that focus on how to use maps and interviews in the classroom to help students see how the city has changed and how interviews can prove to be a valuable and tricky measure of history.

The first step in this process is to bring the different strands and themes of history into New Haven. After reviewing the different trends and impacts of migration, immigration, and urban change, the best place to go is Google Earth. If you can't get Google Earth on your computer, students can download it on their phones and they can share if need be. Once you have access to Google Earth, you can go to the Sanborn© Fire Insurance Maps from the Yale University Map Collection (http://www.library.yale.edu/MapColl/print_sanborn.html). Here there are a variety of maps and resources that you can use. The different maps allow you to download different maps that you can overlay on top of Modern New Haven Maps. The website Historical Map Works (http://www.historic mapworks.com) also has lots of historical maps. One possible activity would be to hand out various print outs of the maps and ask the students to identify where certain New Haven Landmarks and their neighborhood. This pushes students to struggle with identifying how the landscape has changed and been manipulated through human interaction. This can occur as a class or in small groups with the same result.

The other part of this lesson needs to include a live-interview. As the teacher, you need to explain the point of doing interviews and give students a list of questions that they might ask someone they are talking to about their project. Have the students review the list of questions (look above for guidance) and ask them if they would change them in anyway. Ask the students if they think that the people they will interview will all give the same responses to the questions. After a discussion of these issues and the issues you might have in interviewing people, arrange to do an in-class interview with a fellow teacher or administrator. Prep with your subject ahead of time to make sure that they have a copy of the questions and know to ask some clarifying questions. Also allow for time to discuss the waiver form so students will hear you explain the form to an interviewee. This will allow you to help your students prep for some of the more difficult people they might interview. Instruct your students to write down the more important parts of the speakers answer. When the interview is done, have students thank the interviewee and break apart into teams. In the teams, they will do the following: assess their common and uncommon answers, compare and contrast what they found to be important, and lastly, ask them to reflect on why such differences might occur. Why would your small group hear and record different things when listening to the same presenter? As students and groups grapple with this question, it is vital to talk about the work of the historian to unite and rectify the different stories. As students argue and debate, make sure that you end the class with a discussion on how we all hear different things but we can tie them with the different trends that we are discussing in class. You might want to address student concerns also at this time.

Linking the skills of interviewing and the scope of the project should also be done at this time. Students would definitely benefit from seeing and learning how to use conversation as a learning tool. The model interview will help connect students to this idea and show them how important listening can be. Also be prepared to explain oral history to your students. While, the idea may be difficult for them at first, students will eventually gravitate towards the idea. One possible way to teach them about the power of oral history is to talk to them about the difference between a "top-down" view of history that is common in their textbooks, and a "bottom-up" view that they find in their primary sources. This project allows the students to put their own spin on New Haven and American history that they've been learning about in their textbooks.

Lesson Three

Objectives: Interview Skills Check list, Potential Projects

This lessons aims to give students a real grip on how to interview their subjects and how they can present their final project. These two concerns are paramount as they address the student's ability to complete the project successfully and ways for you to assess their work. This lesson should build on the last lessons in the classroom, specifically the model interview and any oral histories you might have used before teaching this unit including Perfetto's story. Spending classroom time discussing these two facets of the unit will help ensure successful interviews and projects.

Making sure students can carry out an interview can be a difficult task and one there you must prepare the students for thoroughly. There are any number of challenges that students can encounter as they are attempting to complete this project. The first obstacle to overcome needs to be the skill deficit that students will face. Going over the model interview in depth will provide a series of discussion points and questions for the kids to work through. These starting points will help you understand the misgivings and concerns of your students. Going over the template of questions will help settle a lot of their concerns. Other than that, the best thing you can do is have your students try out the interview process.

The focus here needs to be on getting students to be comfortable interviewing people so feel free to be creative. The only method I would recommend would be for students to interview each other. Here is where you can start working on some procedures to help the students catalog and remember their experiences. An interesting experiment might be to have the students interview each other and record their activity on their phone. Students can use the recording to help them judge how they did and to allow them to review their work. Technology will play an important role in this project and getting students to think about how they can improve their interviews and record them for this project. To wrap this part of the lesson have the students listen to their tapes and share out their reflections.

Just to be fair, there are some concerns and limits that you need to discuss with your students. The first thing is that you need to discuss this project with your administrators and work on sending home a letter to the parents so that they can be aware of the project and also assist the student to complete the project. This is mainly because parents can help steer students to more productive people to talk while minimizing potential struggles and dangers to the student. Parent involvement can also provide students with an excellent person with whom to start their interviews.

You should dedicate some time in this lesson to discussing possible final products for the project. This opportunity presents itself here to allow for differentiation and alternative projects. For my own classroom and goals, I want to build two components, a technology-centered one and a writing-based one. For the writing I want my students to analyze the different trends and aspects of what they discovered in researching their block. This writing should be reflective of the interviews the students have done and what they learned from the neighbors. The writings should cite the interviews and this will link it to the technological aspect. Google Maps has a feature that will allow students to "map" and integrate their writings and selections from their interviews. This would create a multimedia presentation that other students and classes would be able to add on to and contribute their interviews and work.

The Google Maps will also allow students who need differentiation to contribute to the classroom project. For students who have difficulty writing, they can still do the interviews but perhaps they can create a photo essay of their work or some kind of artistic expression for what they learned and experienced. This is particularly cogent for my students as we are an arts magnet school. However, finding a way for students to express themselves and their work grants all students access to the history of their neighborhood and the classroom's work. There are of course many different ideas that one could use to provide for this kind of connectivity and using them to integrate the class will benefit the students and their learning. A diverse set of final projects will also make the classroom's map look more interesting and reflect different aspects of their neighborhoods.

This lessons are designed around helping students makes sure they understand the goal of the project and how they can complete it. Making sure that students grasp the scope and purpose of the Block by Block Project ensures that they have all they need to complete the project. This lesson intends to hand over the project to the students. Giving students the responsibility over the project will empower the students' work and effort.

Lesson Four

Objectives: Interview Check in

This lesson goal is to build a procedure for checking in with the students and their work. As the other lessons demonstrated, success in this project hinges on student buy-in. In order to do this, you train them to do interviews and allow them to act as historians. However, it would not be wise to let the students completely loose until the final project is due. Having a weekly Check-In procedure will help keep students on task, help them organize their thoughts and observations, and help them connect the work they are doing outside of class to the work they are doing inside the classroom.

The check-in procedure needs to be evaluation of the students' work and part making connections with the material in class. This means that the format is flexible and needs to be flexible. Some students will really need to be monitored to make sure that they are completing the work and the interviews. Other students will need teacher guidance on making the connections between the interviews and the classroom/historical content. These two concerns will drive the check-in process and procedure as you provide students with the support they need to successfully complete this project.

Students who need help completing their interviews may need more than just encouragement. They might need help reaching out to people and local institutions. As a teacher, you can reach out to parents to make sure that the interviews are being completed or discover any other obstacles for the student. For students struggling to find people to interview, you might push them to do a family history where they interview their aunts, uncles, grandparents, and other relatives about the family's decision or decisions to move. Another idea might be to have students to write the history of a local or community institution by interviewing people there. There are several examples from local YMCA branches to Boys/Girls Clubs to local banks, clinics, shelters, or churches. This can also provide a different snapshot of history to accompany the Block Histories that most students will be finishing.

Some students will struggle in connecting their interviews with historical events and trends that are discussed in the classroom. The Check-In procedure will allow the teacher to help students use their interviews to access the classroom content and thus allow of a deeper and more intricate understanding of their interviews. This part of the procedure needs to help address student questions and concerns. Collecting questions about the students' interview experience supplies you with starting points for connecting their thoughts with the content being covered in class. These questions can provide important data and information that the students need and overlook. There should be a reflection worksheet that centers around an interview so that students are reflecting as much as possible on one interview. The teacher's job needs to be making sure the students use these questions to push their thinking about what they are hearing. Be prepared to push students to interview people again if they need to in order to complete the project.

This lesson builds upon the success of the previous lesson and aims to integrate the project into the fabric of class and show students that you value its completion. This lesson, and the procedures you create for your class, will help sustain the energy of this project until you are ready to begin discussing the final its presentation to the class and other classes.

Lesson Five

Objectives: The Exhibition

This lesson revolves around the presentation of the final project and the students' work. For my classroom, I plan on scheduling time with the computer labs around the school so that students will be able to collaborate on creating their map. You probably should familiarize yourself with Google Maps (http://maps.google.com) and test out the different features before the students use it. Time in the lab can also be spent editing the interviews so that the most important snippets make it to the maps. Having students collaborate on creating one map will allow them to see each other works and the overlap between the events that have affected New Haven. This can also be done with a timeline to help students focus on key times and events.

As the map comes together, let students explore the map they have created. This sharing can provide a useful means of collaborating and rediscovering the impact of certain events and similarities amongst the interviews. This map and the timeline would allow the project to reflect the work being done in the classroom as the interviews were collected. This connection is vital as students will need to digest their work in as any different ways as possible. Giving time for them to explore their interviews will also allow them to interact as experts on New Haven's History. Organizing this sharing around the theme or notion of conference would allow students to sample how experts interact. You might provide some larger scale for students to discuss and assign a few to record the discussions that occur.

This lesson and project wraps up, it will be important to find good closure to move on. Students who have successfully completed this project will have performed an amazing of work and growth. For my students, I want to make sure to reward their work and new found expertise with the benefits of being experts. Showcasing their work to other teachers, administrators, and the local institutions that helped will show off your students work and given them a chance to see their work through other people's eyes. As you move on, take the time to think of opportunities to reconnect your students to their work throughout the year. This can help remind your students of what they can accomplish and their power as historians.

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Community Resources

New Haven has any number of resources that might help with the completion of this project. If this project is being done outside of New Haven, then I would look for familiar institutions in your local community. The director of education at the New Haven Museum (www.newhavenmuseum.org), Michelle Cheng (educationnewhavenmuseum.org), has offered to be a contact for school groups coming into the museum. This makes the museum a valuable and easy to access resource. The museum's current exhibit regarding Wooster Square provides an interesting perspective on local history. It is worth a visit so students can see the value of personal testimony, objects as artifacts, and get a larger perspective of New Haven's history. The museum's exhibit also connects the stories of the people to the themes and ideas discussed in class.

The museum is an important resource for its archives which they can open to students. As students research the background of their neighborhoods, the archives of the museum can provide a different insight into than what is easily available on the internet. Taking your kids to the archive would be a great exercise for them to understand the work of historians. In this theme, visiting a local library or historical society might also provide the same experience. There will usually be staff at these locations willing and able to help students connect with needed resources.

The most important message regarding local resources and help should be that as the teacher. Your job is to connect students with different kinds of resources that can help them finish this project. As such, reaching out to these institutions can help make any project successful. While collaboration is not a necessity, it can help students better understand what you are asking of them and provide them with multiple perspectives to understand their city and their neighborhoods.

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Annotated Bibliography

Jackson, Mandi Isaacs. Model city blues urban space and organized resistance in New Haven. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2008.

This book is a great resource for looking at New Haven's neighborhoods and history. Jackson does a great job of connecting Lee's policies and legacy to the modern day. While students will struggle with the text, selections may be appropriate to use in the classroom. The fact that many of writings are neighborhood based may help motivate students to work through their struggles to learn more.

Lassonde, Stephen. Learning to forget schooling and family life in New Haven's working class, 1870-1940. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

This book is very useful for a couple of different reasons. Students may enjoy sections of it because it focuses around the life and times of students, a perspective not often found in textbooks. The book also provides a rich diversity of primary sources. Chapters and tables from this book would be a great classroom resource to use with students and test their evaluative skills.

Perks, Robert, and Alistair Thomson. The oral history reader. London: Routledge, 1998.

This book can serve as guide and a resource for the challenges and benefits of oral history. There are several different chapters that discuss the challenges of oral history. While very few of the chapters will be appropriate for use in class, this book serves as a resource for the teacher. This book contains useful tips for interview questions, release forms, and techniques. A good and selective use of this book can help your class complete this unit successfully.

Rae, Douglas W.. City: urbanism and its end. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

This book contains a lot of information about New Haven's History and struggles over the past hundred years. In previous sections of this book, Rae's work has shown its usefulness. Rae does a good job of showing change in New Haven and providing evidence and accounts of that change. Chapters of this book can be read in your class and the chapters about Richard Lee can provide an excellent base for understanding New Haven's recent history.

Riccio, Anthony V.. The Italian American experience in New Haven. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006.

Riccio's work provides an excellent look at how one group has changed New Haven and been impacted by the New Haven experience. Many different resources in this book can be used in the classroom with students. Using the book, or parts of it, before visiting Wooster Square or the New Haven M

useum, can provide an excellent study looking at neighborhoods and groups. Its use is definitely recommended.

Riis, Jacob A.. How the other half lives; studies among the tenements of New York.. New York: Sagamore Press, 1957.

Riis's work is seminal in understanding urban environments and immigration. This photo essay and its text provide wonderful insight into how immigrant and urban populations lived in the late 19th Century. While the text holds many of the prejudices and ideas of its time, there is still a tremendous amount of value that students can pull from this text. The photos will allow students of all levels to access the information along with possibly serving as a case study for analyzing neighborhoods.

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